Skip to main content

Table 3 Daily dietary intake at baseline and after supplementation1,2

From: Effect of a fat spread enriched with medium-chain triacylglycerols and a special fatty acid-micronutrient combination on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight patients with diabetes

  MCT intake > 7 g/d (n = 21) MTC intake ≤7 g/d (n = 22) Pb
  wk 0 wk 12 wk 12 - 0 P a wk 0 wk 12 wk 12 - 0 P a  
Energy (kcal/d) 2341.9 ± 650.0 2440.4 ± 758.4 98.5 ± 601.3 0.566 2234.4 ± 950.3 2518.8 ± 1095.4 284.5 ± 1229.6 0.223 0.593
Protein (g/d) 95.6 ± 22.7 93.4 ± 40.7 -2.2 ± 37.9 0.498 90.6 ± 45.7 102.7 ± 57.6 12.1 ± 67.3 0.263 0.211
Protein (%EN) 16.89 ± 2.23 15.43 ± 2.90 -1.47 ± 2.92 0.027 16.27 ± 3.10 16.13 ± 2.72 -0.14 ± 3.55 0.592 0.198
Carbohydrates (g/d) 237.0 ± 59.3 237.2 ± 62.3 0.2 ± 58.1 0.931 240.9 ± 96.9 241.1 ± 86.0 0.2 ± 109.3 0.808 0.771
Carbohydrates (%EN) 41.42 ± 6.35 40.53 ± 7.14 -0.89 ± 5.83 0.715 44.79 ± 7.74 40.27 ± 7.65 -4.51 ± 7.53 0.014 0.076
Fat (g/d) 93.4 ± 30.4 106.6 ± 37.6 13.2 ± 30.2 0.068 89.1 ± 47.0 111.0 ± 57.6 21.9 ± 60.5 0.050 0.789
Fat (%EN) 36.4 ± 5.5 39.4 ± 4.7 3.03 ± 6.16 0.079 35.1 ± 6.2 39.1 ± 5.8 4.04 ± 6.04 0.006 0.423
Alcohol (g/d) 21.3 ± 35.4 19.3 ± 28.2 -1.96 ± 16.86 0.476 11.8 ± 20.2 17.9 ± 27.6 6.03 ± 24.84 0.227 0.206
Alcohol (%EN) 5.33 ± 7.61 4.66 ± 6.29 -0.67 ± 3.29 0.590 3.86 ± 6.05 4.48 ± 6.58 0.62 ± 5.65 0.872 0.771
Cholesterol (mg/d) 363.2 ± 145.2 393.6 ± 213.7 30.4 ± 160.4 0.543 332.4 ± 189.0 359.7 ± 193.7 27.2 ± 259.2 0.758 0.884
SAFA (g/d) 34.6 ± 13.9 41.9 ± 13.5 7.3 ± 11.7 0.016 32.4 ± 17.7 40.2 ± 18.8 7.8 ± 21.1 0.072 0.942
MCT (g/d) 1.31 ± 0.76 7.74 ± 0.56 6.43 ± 0.83 <0.001 1.08 ± 0.64 4.94 ± 2.12 3.86 ± 2.29 <0.001 <0.001
MUFA (g/d) 34.0 ± 12.3 39.9 ± 16.0 5.9 ± 13.5 0.039 34.1 ± 19.9 45.5 ± 26.5 11.3 ± 27.1 0.010 0.627
PUFA (g/d) 14.5 ± 6.6 16.8 ± 5.7 2.3 ± 6.6 0.033 14.7 ± 7.7 18.2 ± 9.0 3.4 ± 9.5 0.082 0.981
Oleic acid (g/d) 30.1 ± 11.2 35.8 ± 14.4 5.7 ± 12.5 0.039 30.1 ± 17.7 40.7 ± 24.5 10.7 ± 24.6 0.011 0.610
LA (g/d) 12.34 ± 5.76 13.79 ± 4.98 1.45 ± 5.61 0.073 12.91 ± 6.88 15.21 ± 8.09 2.30 ± 8.30 0.322 0.981
ALA (g/d) 1.35 ± 0.82 2.09 ± 0.38 0.74 ± 0.78 0.001 1.15 ± 0.54 2.03 ± 0.66 0.88 ± 0.79 <0.001 0.409
LA/ALA 9.60 ± 1.87 6.47 ± 1.23 -3.14 ± 2.08 <0.001 11.37 ± 3.70 7.22 ± 1.70 -4.15 ± 3.43 <0.001 0.395
EPA (g/d) 0.040 ± 0.038 0.187 ± 0.035 0.147 ± 0.048 <0.001 0.035 ± 0.039 0.178 ± 0.027 0.143 ± 0.049 <0.001 0.981
DHA (g/d) 0.075 ± 0.085 0.192 ± 0.148 0.117 ± 0.167 0.003 0.068 ± 0.116 0.152 ± 0.071 0.083 ± 0.151 0.001 0.752
LA/(ALA+EPA+DHA) 8.72 ± 1.63 5.50 ± 1.11 -3.22 ± 1,65 <0.001 10.56 ± 3.67 6.20 ± 1.57 -4.35 ± 3.35 <0.001 0.296
Glucose (g/d) 11.4 ± 6.4 13.7 ± 6.1 2.3 ± 7.0 0.106 14.7 ± 7.4 13.7 ± 8.9 -1.0 ± 8.8 0.661 0.174
Fructose (g/d) 16.7 ± 10.4 17.7 ± 8.8 1.0 ± 11.6 0.532 20.2 ± 9.3 18.0 ± 11.1 -2.1 ± 12.2 0.527 0.296
Sorbitol (g/d) 1.01 ± 0.83 1.25 ± 1.12 0.24 ± 1.37 0.498 1.01 ± 0.58 1.70 ± 1.46 0.69 ± 1.49 0.051 0.437
Retinol (RE, μg/d) 3093.4 ± 6769.2 1671.6 ± 825.4 -1421.8 ± 6808.4 0.434 2611.9 ± 3613.9 1845.3 ± 792.9 -766.5 ± 3442.7 0.783 0.789
Vitamin D (μg/d) 3.09 ± 3.68 5.54 ± 4.76 2.45 ± 6.08 0.010 2.48 ± 3.58 3.54 ± 2.01 1.06 ± 4.36 0.042 0.627
Vitamin E (mg/d) 11.01 ± 5.25 14.45 ± 4.25 3.44 ± 4.66 0.004 12.10 ± 5.65 15.03 ± 7.19 2.92 ± 7.60 0.077 0.481
Vitamin B2 (mg/d) 1.77 ± 0.98 2.18 ± 0.65 0.41 ± 1.03 0.008 1.59 ± 0.72 2.26 ± 1.04 0.67 ± 1.24 0.006 0.752
Nicotinic acid (mg/d) 22.5 ± 8.8 25.9 ± 9.3 3.5 ± 12.2 0.217 19.5 ± 8.3 29.3 ± 15.0 9.8 ± 15.0 <0.001 0.159
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 2.11 ± 0.80 2.52 ± 1.31 0.41 ± 1.17 0.122 1.98 ± 0.89 2.75 ± 1.31 0.77 ± 1.44 0.002 0.296
Folic acid (μg/d) 250.4 ± 157.3 354.1 ± 88.9 103.7 ± 119.1 0.001 239.5 ± 82.7 371.5 ± 139.4 131.9 ± 153.3 <0.001 0.716
Vitamin B12 (μg/d) 11.14 ± 15.76 10.54 ± 4.74 -0.61 ± 16.15 0.063 8.65 ± 7.70 10.83 ± 5.19 2.18 ± 9.35 0.050 0.369
Vitamin C (mg/d) 92.8 ± 89.2 79.2 ± 29.6 -13.6 ± 86.0 0.848 88.9 ± 40.6 92.3 ± 48.5 3.4 ± 64.1 0.758 0.771
Sodium (g/d) 3.14 ± 1.23 3.02 ± 1.24 -0.12 ± 1.10 0.715 3.39 ± 1.87 3.50 ± 2.21 0.11 ± 2.54 0.485 0.716
Chloride (g/d) 4.74 ± 1.71 4.62 ± 1.84 -0.12 ± 1.51 0.741 5.03 ± 2.65 5.29 ± 3.38 0.26 ± 3.86 0.592 0.644
Salt (g/d) 7.1 ± 2.7 6.9 ± 2.8 -0.2 ± 2.4 0.715 7.5 ± 4.2 7.8 ± 5.1 0.4 ± 5.9 0.509 0.789
Fiber (g/d) 21.9 ± 11.7 22.2 ± 7.2 0.32 ± 8.96 0.434 24.1 ± 10.5 25.3 ± 13.4 1.16 ± 14.47 0.910 0.808
Purins (mg/d) 203.9 ± 67.0 201.9 ± 98.8 -2.0 ± 111.8 0.821 200.7 ± 98.6 230.1 ± 129.3 27.0 ± 145.5 0.327 0.464
Uric acid (mg/d) 613.4 ± 201.4 605.9 ± 297.7 -7.5 ± 336.1 0.794 586.3 ± 279.8 685.2 ± 352.7 98.9 ± 397.4 0.072 0.224
  1. 1 data are presented as mean ± SD
  2. a p values for comparison between week 0 and 12 (Wilcoxon-Test)
  3. b p values for comparison of group × time interactions (Mann-Whitney-U-Test)
  4. 2 abbreviations used: ALA, alpha-linolenic acid; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; EN, energy; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; LA, linoleic acid; MCT, medium-chain triacylglycerols; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; RE, retinol equivalent; SAFA, saturated fatty acids