Skip to main content

Table 3 Analytical methods for some of the measurements

From: Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity

Analyte Source Methodology
Vitamin A Plasma Spectrophotometry [80]
Total Carotenes (alpha, beta, epsilon, gamma) Plasma Spectrophotometry [81]
Vitamin C (sum of reduced and oxidized forms) Plasma Spectrophotometry [82]
Vitamin D3 (25-hydroxy) plasma Measured in plasma by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectroscopy (LC/MS/MS) [83]
Vitamin E (total tocopherols, including alpha, gamma1, gamma2) serum Spectrophotometry [84]
Vitamin K plasma Vitamin K was extracted from plasma by methylene chloride in a monophasic design, purified on a C-18 cartridge, separated on a reversed-phase column, and then detected fluorometrically [85]
Thiamine Whole Blood Microbiological Assay [86]
Riboflavin Whole Blood Microbiological Assay [87]
Niacin Whole Blood Microbiological Assay [88]
Pantothenic Acid Whole Blood Microbiological Assay [89]
P5P RBC Microbiological Assay [90]
Biotin Whole Blood Microbiological Assay [91]
Folic Acid Serum Microbiological Assay [92]
Vitamin B12 Plasma Microbiological Assay [93]
Choline (Free and Total) RBC Microbiological Assay [94]
Alpha lipoic acid Plasma Microbiological Assay [95]
CoQ10 Plasma Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using hexane extraction on a C-18 column (15 cm, 5 micron) with methanol:hexane (95:5) as the mobile phase and UV detection [96]
Adenosine, Inosine, Uridine Plasma HPLC with 254 adsorption [97]
Formimino-glutaric acid (FIGLU) Urine Spectrophotometrically [98] after adjustment of specific gravity at neutral pH [99]
Kryptopyrole Urine Spectrophotometrically [100] after adjustment of specific gravity at neutral pH [99]
Methylmalonic Acid Urine Liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization [101], expressed per gram creatinine
N-methylnicotinamide Urine HPLC, with ultraviolet diode array detection [102], and the results are expressed per gram creatinine
Serum Ferritin Serum Immunometric assay with Immunlite 2000 (Diagnostics Product Corp., Los Angeles, California)
S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenyosylhomocysteine (SAH) RBC Extracted from RBC [103] and measured by LCMS [104]
Glutathione (GSH and GSSG) Plasma Fluorescence detector [105]
Nitrotyrosine Plasma LCMS [106]
ATP Plasma Luciferin-luciferase assay [107]
NADH, NADPH RBC Spectrophotometry [108]
Sulfate (Free and Total) Plasma Using indirect atomic absorption spectrometry [109]