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Table 3 Studies outlining the effects of supplementing dietary linoleic acid levels (g/day) on changes in plasma/serum phospholipid arachidonic acid level

From: Increasing dietary linoleic acid does not increase tissue arachidonic acid content in adults consuming Western-type diets: a systematic review

Author, (reference) Study design Subjects Diet length LA source, amount supplemented (g/d) Δ AA (%) change Comments
Anderson [44] Parallel intervention N = 8 3 months Olive oil (0.2) 8.46 (N.S.) Olive oil supplement
   N = 9   Olive oil (0.2) 9.05 (N.S.) Provided LA for two different groups
Thies [45] Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention N = 8 12 weeks Oil blend (0.64) 3.38 (N.S.) Different oil blends were sources of LA
     Placebo oil (0.9) 5.25 (N.S.)  
Geppert [21] Randomized double- blind parallel intervention N = 20 8 weeks Oil blend (0.86) -7 (p < 0.05) Blend palm, rapeseed and sunflower oil
Johansson [46] Randomized, double-blind, crossover N = 12 4 weeks Sea buckthorn berry oil (0.90) -2.2 (N.S.) Sea buckthorn berry oil is 17.9% LA.
Kew [47] Double-blind, parallel intervention N = 42 4 weeks Olive oil (0.92) -13.04 (N.S.)  
Buckley [48] Double-blind parallel intervention N = 45 4 weeks Olive oil (0.95) -7.14 (N.S.)  
Yaqoob [34] Randomized, double- blind parallel intervention N = 8 per group 12 weeks Placebo (coconut/soybean oil) (1.0) 20 (N.S.)  
     Olive oil (1.2) -2.1 (N.S.)  
     Sunflower oil (6.95) 16 (N.S.)  
Wallace [49] Randomized, double- blind parallel intervention N = 8 12 weeks Oil blend (1.52) -6.97 (N.S.)  
   N = 8   palm/soybean oil (1.7) 2.43 (N.S.)  
Miles [27] Randomized, double-blind parallel intervention N = 8 12 weeks Placebo (palm/sunflower oil) (2.07) 2.19 (N.S.)  
Grimsgaard [20] Double-blind, parallel intervention N = 78 7weeks Corn oil (2.24) 3.1 (p < 0.05)  
Conquer [50] Double-blind, parallel intervention N = 24 42 days Corn oil (2.39) 1.12 (N.S.)  
Finnegan [51] Double-blind, parallel intervention N = 50 6 months Safflower/sunflower (11.6) 7.19 (N.S.) Test oils provided as margarine and capsules
  1. Percent change (±) from baseline in AA that is significant is identified with (p < 0.05). Percent change (±) from baseline in AA that is not significant is denoted by N.S.
  2. Abbreviations: AA, arachidonic acid; DRI, Dietary Reference Intake; LA, linoleic acid