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Table 1 Daily energy, macronutrient and water intake in vegetarian (V) and non-vegetarian (NV) elderly males (m) and females (f) (mean ± SD)

From: Health aspects, nutrition and physical characteristics in matched samples of institutionalized vegetarian and non-vegetarian elderly (> 65yrs)

Variable Gender V NV RDI
Energy (MJ) m 8.7 ± 1.6 8.7 ± 1.2 8.8
  f 6.8 ± 2.0*,† 8.0 ± 1.4 7.8
Protein (E%) m 17.8 ± 3.4 21.0 ± 2.0† 10-15
  f 17.3 ± 3.4*,† 19.5 ± 3.5† 10-15
Total carbohydrate (E%) m 48.1 ± 6.4 42.3 ± 3.6† 50-55
  f 47.8 ± 7.5* 43.3 ± 4.6† 50-55
Mono- and disaccharides (g) m 170 ± 37† 137 ± 35 131
  f 137 ± 50 133 ± 30† 117
Polysaccharides (g) m 66 ± 22† 56 ± 3† 158
  f 50 ± 24† 59 ± 14† 140
Fibre (g) m 28 ± 9 36 ± 10 27
  f 28 ± 18 32 ± 11 27
Total fat (E%) m 32.8 ± 7.9 32.6 ± 3.0 30-35
  f 34.7 ± 7.2 35.2 ± 4.5 30-35
Saturated fat (g) m 31.4 ± 12.9 33.4 ± 4.7† 23
  f 25.4 ± 8.2*,† 32.2 ± 6.9† 21
MUFA (g) m 28.8 ± 11.7 39.1 ± 4.2† 28
  f 22.8 ± 10.1* 37.1 ± 6.1† 25
PUFA (g) m 14.3 ± 2.8† 13.8 ± 1.3† 28
  f 13.4 ± 7.0† 12.2 ± 3.4† 25
Cholesterol (mg) m 181 ± 56 208 ± 21 < 300
  f 161 ± 69 205 ± 46 < 300
Alcohol (E%) m 1.7 ± 3.1 13.2 ± 13.1 < 4
  f 0.3 ± 0.9* 5.6 ± 7.7 < 4
Water (ml) m 2050 ± 277 2224 ± 214 1600-2400
  f 1663 ± 452* 2166 ± 538 1600-2400
  1. *Significantly different with NV (p < 0.05)
  2. †Significantly different from Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) (p < 0.05)
  3. MUFA: mono-unsaturated fatty acids
  4. PUFA: poly-unsaturated fatty acids