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Table 1 Anthropometric, biochemical, and metabolic parameters of the studied groups

From: Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

  Control Obese T2D
n 14 22 20
Age (yr) 45 [41;59] 49 [20;60] 55 [40;63]#,$
Gender (males/females) 5/9 20/2 12/8
BMI (kg/m2) 23.85 [21.20;32.40] 33.60 [27.90;38.50] * 31.85 [22.80;39.10]#
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 5.03 [4.50;5.85] 5.50 [4.30;6.80] * 7.37 [5.11;12.50]#,$
HbA1c (%) 5.40 [5.00;5.90] 5.45 [4.80;6.50] 7.40 [5.80;11.70]#,$
Fasting insulin (μUI/ml) 5.90 [2.90;13.90] 11.55 [3.90;35.70] * 11.65 [2.10;38.40]#
HOMA 1.33 [0.60;3.03] 3.15 [0.85;10.79] 3.85 [0.66;16.38]#
BMR (kcal/24 h) 1368 [1066;1920] 1895 [1590;2350] * 1701 [1264;2062]#,$
TC (mg/dl) 209 [170;292] 201[138;250] 184 [104;219]#
TG (mg/dl) 90 [51;187] 140 [62;531] * 130 [44;335]
LDL-C (mg/dl) 122 [86;178] 131 [92;165] 112 [35;139]#,$
HDL-C (mg/dl) 66 [40;103] 40 [26;54] * 46 [37;74]#,$
Total BA (μmol/l) 1.06 [0.46;1.90] 1.49 [0.64;4.06]* 1.34 [0.53;5.54]
DCA (μmol/l) 0.38 [0.14;1.02] 0.44 [0.03;1.07] 0.62 [0.11;1.66]#
CDCA (μmol/l) 0.36 [0.09;1.25] 0.60 [0.31;2.38] 0.43 [0.09;2.78]
CA (μmol/l) 0.22 [0.08;0.50] 0.35 [0.09;1.20] * 0.26 [0.1;1.10]
  1. Data represent median [min;max]. Total BA represent the sum of DCA + CDCA + CA.
  2. Tukey test was used for comparison of clinical parameters between the groups. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) are shown between controls and obeses (*), control and type 2 diabetics (#), and obeses and type 2 diabetics ($).
  3. HOMA: homeostasis model assessment (= glucose × insulin/22.5), BMR: basal metabolic rate, TC: total cholesterol, TG: triglycerides, DCA: deoxycholic acid, CDCA: chenodeoxycholic acid, CA: cholic acid.