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Table 2 Dietary intakes of adult participants by quartiles of total fructose intake: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

From: Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

  Males (n= 1141) Females (n= 1396)
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 P 2 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p
Energy intake (kcal/d) 2357 ± 411 2538 ± 41 2444 ± 41 2375 ± 41 < 0.05 2191 ± 35 2241 ± 34 2237 ± 34 2223 ± 34 NS
Carbohydrate (% of energy) 56.7 ± 0.4 58.1 ± 0.4 58.8 ± 0.4 62.4 ± 0.4 < 0.05 53.4 ± 0.3 54.9 ± 0.3 56.9 ± 0.3 60.6 ± 0.3 < 0.05
Protein (% of energy) 13.6 ± 0.1 13.6 ± 0.1 13.9 ± 0.1 13.8 ± 0.1 NS 13.2 ± 0.1 13.8 ± 0.1 13.7 ± 0.1 13.7 ± 0.1 NS
Fat (% of energy) 31.1 ± 0.4 30 ± 0.4 29.9 ± 0.4 27.4 ± 0.4 < 0.001 34.9 ± 0.4 33.6 ± 0.4 32.3 ± 0.4 29.7 ± 0.4 < 0.001
Simple carbohydrate3 (% of energy) 18.9 ± 0.3 21.4 ± 0.3 24.1 ± 0.3 28.6 ± 0.3 < 0.001 18.5 ± 0.2 21.5 ± 0.2 23.7 ± 0.2 28.7 ± 0.2 < 0.001
Fiber (g/1000 kcal/d) 14.5 ± 0.4 17.3 ± 0.4 17.4 ± 0.4 18.2 ± 0.4 < 0.001 14.7 ± 0.3 15.5 ± 0.3 17.3 ± 0.3 18.6 ± 0.3 < 0.001
Natural fructose4 (% of energy) 1.7 ± 0.04 2.6 ± 0.04 3.4 ± 0.04 5.2 ± 0.04 < 0.001 1.7 ± 0.03 2.6 ± 0.03 3.6 ± 0.03 5.4 ± 0.03 < 0.001
Added fructose5 (% of energy) 2.5 ± 0.05 3.6 ± 0.05 4.6 ± 0.05 7.0 ± 0.05 < 0.001 1.2 ± 0.05 2.3 ± 0.05 3.6 ± 0.05 5.9 ± 0.03 < 0.001
Total dietary fructose           
(% of energy) 4.3 ± 0.09 6.2 ± 0.09 8.0 ± 0.09 12.2 ± 0.09 < 0.001 2.9 ± 0.09 5.0 ± 0.09 7.2 ± 0.09 11.3 ± 0.09 < 0.001
(% of carbohydrate) 7.7 ± 0.15 10.7 ± 0.15 13.8 ± 0.15 19.6 ± 0.15 < 0.001 5.6 ± 0.14 9.3 ± 0.14 12.8 ± 0.14 18.7 ± 0.14 < 0.001
(g/d) 26.4 ± 0.7 37 ± 0.7 48.7 ± 0.7 73.6 ± 0.7 < 0.001 17.0 ± 0.6 28.2 ± 0.6 40.4 ± 0.6 63.3 ± 0.6 < 0.001
  1. 1 Data are age-adjusted mean ± SEM
  2. 2 P values comparing dietary intake of participants across quartiles of fructose intake using linear regression model.
  3. 3 Dietary Simple carbohydrates includes sucrose, maltose, galactose, glucose, fructose, maltose.
  4. 4 Natural fructose in fructose-containing food such as fruits, vegetables, honey, etc.
  5. 5 Fructose content of industrialized foods and beverages containing beet or cane sugar/molasses, corn sweeteners and invert syrup