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Table 6 Summary of major effects of n-3 and n-6 HFD on lipid and glucose metabolism

From: Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

  DU6 DUhTP   DU6 DUhTP
Lipid metabolism n-3 HFD n-6 HFD n-3 HFD n-6 HFD Glucose metabolism n-3 HFD n-6 HFD n-3 HFD n-6 HFD
Leptin - Insulin - (↑) - -
FFA - - - - Glucose - -
Cholesterol - - - Liver IRβ -
Fat deposition (↑) - Liver PI3K - - - -
Body weight - Liver PKCζ - - -
Liver weight - - Muscle IRβ - - - -
Liver fat - - - Muscle PKCζ - - - -
      Muscle PI3K - - - -
      Adipose PKCζ - -
Fatty acid composition liver    Fatty acid composition muscle   
SFA - - - - SFA - - -
Myristic acid - - Myristic acid - -
Palmitic acid - - - - Palmitic acid - - -
Stearic acid - - Stearic acid - -
Oleic acid - (↑) - - Oleic acid - - - -
MUFA - - - - MUFA - - -
PUFA - - PUFA - - -
n-3 PUFA - - n-3 PUFA
n-6 PUFA - n-6 PUFA -
  1. DU6-mouse line selected for high body weight; DUhTP-mouse line selected for high treadmill performance
  2. n-3 and n-6 HFD-high fat diet enriched with either n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  3. FFA-free fatty acids; IR β-Insulin receptor β subunit; PI3K-phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase; PKC ζ-atypical protein kinase ζ; PUFA-polyunsaturated fatty acids; MUFA-monounsaturated fatty acids
  4. - no change; ↑ increase compared to respective standard chow fed group; ↓ decrease compared to respective standard chow group; (↓)(↑) tendency to decrease/increase.