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Table 6 Summary of major effects of n-3 and n-6 HFD on lipid and glucose metabolism

From: Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

 

DU6

DUhTP

 

DU6

DUhTP

Lipid

metabolism

n-3 HFD

n-6 HFD

n-3 HFD

n-6 HFD

Glucose

metabolism

n-3 HFD

n-6 HFD

n-3 HFD

n-6 HFD

Leptin

-

Insulin

-

(↑)

-

-

FFA

-

-

-

-

Glucose

-

-

Cholesterol

-

-

-

Liver IRβ

-

Fat deposition

(↑)

-

Liver PI3K

-

-

-

-

Body weight

-

Liver PKCζ

-

-

-

Liver weight

-

-

Muscle IRβ

-

-

-

-

Liver fat

-

-

-

Muscle PKCζ

-

-

-

-

     

Muscle PI3K

-

-

-

-

     

Adipose PKCζ

-

-

Fatty acid composition

liver

  

Fatty acid composition

muscle

  

SFA

-

-

-

-

SFA

-

-

-

Myristic acid

-

-

Myristic acid

-

-

Palmitic acid

-

-

-

-

Palmitic acid

-

-

-

Stearic acid

-

-

Stearic acid

-

-

Oleic acid

-

(↑)

-

-

Oleic acid

-

-

-

-

MUFA

-

-

-

-

MUFA

-

-

-

PUFA

-

-

PUFA

-

-

-

n-3 PUFA

-

-

n-3 PUFA

n-6 PUFA

-

n-6 PUFA

-

  1. DU6-mouse line selected for high body weight; DUhTP-mouse line selected for high treadmill performance
  2. n-3 and n-6 HFD-high fat diet enriched with either n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids
  3. FFA-free fatty acids; IR β-Insulin receptor β subunit; PI3K-phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase; PKC ζ-atypical protein kinase ζ; PUFA-polyunsaturated fatty acids; MUFA-monounsaturated fatty acids
  4. - no change; ↑ increase compared to respective standard chow fed group; ↓ decrease compared to respective standard chow group; (↓)(↑) tendency to decrease/increase.