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Table 2 Mean daily dietary intake at baseline and during the study (12 wk) for each treatment group1

From: Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial

  Dairy (n = 22) Calcium (n = 16) Placebo (n = 23)
Nutrient Baseline 12 wk Baseline 12 wk Baseline 12 wk
Total energy (kcal/d) 2,4 2122 ± 630 1510 ± 225*,a 1910 ± 415 1300 ± 200* 1960 ± 500 1300 ± 200*
Energy (kJ/d) 8880 ± 2640 6340 ± 940 8000 ± 1740 5460 ± 850 8200 ± 2100 5440 ± 825
Carbohydrate (% EN) 51.8 ± 7.8 50.9 ± 5.4 48.7 ± 4.6 51.0 ± 4.8 52.6 ± 6.2 53.6 ± 5.2
Protein (% EN) 2^, 4 14.0 ± 2.5 19.0 ± 1.8*,a 15.1 ± 2.5 17.4 ± 2.1*, b 14.4 ± 3.0 16.7 ± 2.5*, b
Fat (% EN) 31.8 ± 5.1 28.1 ± 4.7* 35.3 ± 4.9 30.1 ± 3.9* 31.9 ± 5.1 28.2 ± 4.7*
SFA (% fat) 2^, 4 49.9 ± 5.8 50.5 ± 6.2a 44.9 ± 5.9 41.1 ± 3.6*, b 46.4 ± 5.0 41.3 ± 3.9*, b
SFA (%EN) 2γ, 4 11.0 ± 2.8 11.5 ± 2.9a 11.8 ± 1.9 9.8 ± 1.5*,ba 10.3 ± 2.3 9.2 ± 1.8b
MUFA (% fat) 2γ, 4 32.5 ± 3.8 31.7 ± 4.0a 33.9 ± 4.1 36.9 ± 3.0*, b 34.0 ± 3.5 37.6 ± 2.6*, b
MUFA (%EN)3,4 7.2 ± 2.1a 7.2 ± 1.5a 9.0 ± 2.0 b 8.8 ± 1.3 b 7.6 ± 2.1 ab 8.5 ± 1.9 b
PUFA (% fat) 4 17.6 ± 4.9 17.7 ± 3.5a 21.2 ± 5.6 22.0 ± 2.8 b 19.6 ± 4.0 21.0 ± 2.9 b
PUFA (%EN)4 3.8 ± 1.3 a 4.0 ± 0.8a 5.7 ± 2.0 b 5.2 ± 0.8 b 4.3 ± 1.1 ab 4.7 ± 1.0 b
n6:n3 ratio2,γ, 4 8.9 ± 3.3 6.6 ± 3.1* 8.8 ± 3.8 8.7 ± 2.5 10.7 ± 5.5 7.9 ± 2.8*
Cholesterol (mg/d) 214.3 ± 97.0 182.4 ± 64.1 239.0 ± 128.9 148.7 ± 43.8* 207.1 ± 104.3 152.2 ± 54.1*
Biotin (μg/d) 2^, 4 8.3 ± 5.9 16.1 ± 5.7*,a 8.2 ± 3.9 8.5 ± 4.7 b 9.9 ± 6.4 9.9 ± 5.1 b
Calcium (mg/d) 2^, 4 772.3 ± 243.4 1244.8 ± 108.0*,a 644.0 ± 122.4 1035.1 ± 72.3*,b 711.7 ± 202.6 449.0 ± 69.7*,c
Niacin (mg/d) 15.9 ± 6.0 13.9 ± 3.8 15.0 ± 5.3 15.4 ± 4.8 15.4 ± 3.7 15.3 ± 5.2
Pantothenic acid (mg/d) 2^, 4 2.3 ± 1.1 3.41 ± 0.7*,a 2.2 ± 0.9 2.1 ± 0.71 b 2.2 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 0.9 b
Riboflavin (mg/d) 2^,4 1.3 ± 0.4 1.76 ± 0.3*,a 1.2 ± 0.4 0.95 ± 0.3 b 1.3 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3*, b
Thiamin (mg/d) 1.2 ± 0.35 1.1 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.4 1.1 ± 0.4
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.2 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.4* 1.2 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.6*
Vitamin B12 (μg/d) 2^, 4 2.7 ± 1.7 3.8 ± 1.7*,a 3.2 ± 1.8 2.2 ± 1.0*,b 2.2 ± 1.1 2.3 ± 1.4 b
Vitamin D (μg/d) 2^, 4 1.8 ± 1.1 4.8 ± 2.1*,a 1.8 ± 0.7 0.9 ± 0.8*,b 1.9 ± 1.3 1.1 ± 0.8*, b
  1. 1 Data are means ± SD; n = 61. EN, energy; SFA, saturated fatty acids; MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids.
  2. 2Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to test the effect of time; time x treatment and treatment, confirmed with paired sample t-test was for significant differences between baseline and 12 wk. Time, *P < 0.05; time x treatment, ^ P < 0.01, γP < 0.05.
  3. 3ANCOVA to test the effect of treatment on reported baseline nutrient intake with adjustments for reported site, sex and baseline energy intake. The final models were not adjusted for baseline energy intake because the dependent variables --MUFA and PUFA as a percent of energy are already adjusted for energy intake. Pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni adjustment was used to determine differences among treatments. Values with different superscript letters are significantly different; P < 0.05.
  4. 4ANCOVA to test the effect of treatment on reported 12 wk nutrient intake with adjustments for site, sex, and energy intake at 12 wk. Protein, SFA, MUFA and PUFA as a percent of energy were not adjusted for energy intake. Pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni adjustment was used to determine differences among treatments. Values with different superscript letters are significantly different. P < 0.05.