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Table 3 Baseline, Week 12, and 24 Values of Bone Mineral Density, Inflammatory Markers, and Osteoporosis Biomarkers in Different Groups of Post-Menopausal Women

From: Long-term aerobic exercise and omega-3 supplementation modulate osteoporosis through inflammatory mechanisms in post-menopausal women: a randomized, repeated measures study

Variables Groups S+E E S Con *P <
L 2 -L 4 BMD (g/cm2)      
Baseline 0.79 ± 0.12 0.79 ± 0.12 0.78 ± 0.12 0.79 ± 0.14 0.995
Week 12 0.84 ± 0.14 0.81 ± 0.12 0.79 ± 0.11 0.79 ± 0.13 0.51
CfB 0.05 ± 0.15 0.02 ± 0.06 0.01 ± 0.09 -0.01 ± 0.06  
(%) 3.3 (0, 15.6) 0.7 (-1.3, 7.5) 0 (-1, 10) 0 (0, 0)  
Week 24 0.91 ± 0.07 2, 3, 4 †# 0.84 ± 0.13 1, 4 0.83 ± 0.1 1, 4 0.73 ± 0.14 1, 2, 3 †# *0.001
CfB 0.13 ± 0.15 0.05 ± 0.14 0.05 ± 0.13 -0.06 ± 0.16  
(%) 15.8 (3.3, 42.5) 7.6 (0, 19.9) 1.5 (-0.2, 18) -8.5 (-23.9, 0)  
Femoral neck BMD (g/cm 2 )      
Baseline 0.68 ± 0.11 0.67 ± 0.10 0.67 ± 0.10 0.69 ± 0.08 0.981
Week 12 0.78 ± 0.17 2, 3, 4 0.71 ± 0.15 4 0.71 ± 0.09 1, 4 0.65 ± 0.07 1, 2, 3 *0.013
CfB 0.11 ± 0.21 0.03 ± 0.21 0.03 ± 0.07 -0.04 ± 0.06  
(%) 17.9 (-10.6, 48.9) 3.6 (-12.2, 21.2) 1.9 (0, 6.7) -2.8 (-5.9, -1.4)  
Week 24 0. 87 ± 0.17 2, 3, 4 †# 0.74 ± 0.13 1, 4 0.74 ± 0.15 1, 4 0.63 ± 0.09 1, 2, 3 *0.001
CfB 0.19 ± 0.18 0.07 ± 0.19 0.07 ± 0.13 -0.06 ± 0.1  
(%) 19.3 (-2.5, 56.8) 8 (-11.2, 22.9) 17 (-3.4, 25.3) -7.5 (-11.4, -0.3)  
TNF-α (pg/ml)      
Baseline 79 ± 15.4 77.6 ± 17.1 76.6 ± 17.3 79.8 ± 8.3 0.943
Week 12 44.9 ± 20.3 2, 3, 4 68.5 ± 16.9 1, 4 61.1 ± 24.2 1, 4 83.6 ± 8.6 1, 2, 3 *0.001
CfB -34.1 ± 24.7 -9.2 ± 29.3 -16.9 ± 33.1 3.8 ± 6.7  
(%) -47 (-55.7, -33.8) -22.1 (-27.2, 9.3) -27.4 (-50.9, -2.3) 5.4 (0, 12.4)  
Week 24 19.7 ± 17.4 2, 3, 4 †# 58.2 ± 28.1 1, 3, 4 34 ± 31.8 1, 2, 4 †# 88.3 ± 20.6 1, 2, 3 *0.001
CfB -59.3 ± 23.7 -19.4 ± 31.9 -42.5 ± 30.8 8.5 ± 17.9  
(%) -81.7 (-85.6, -78.4) -16.1 (-64.1, 8.9) -76.9 (-83.5, -10) 8.8 (0.5, 17.1)  
IL-6 (pg/ml)      
Baseline 49.3 ± 26.5 50.7 ± 25.1 48.8 ± 27.2 51.6 ± 20.5 0.991
Week 12 40.2 ± 17.3 49.6 ± 30.9 46.4 ± 29.9 54.6 ± 29.2 0.547
CfB -9.1 ± 14.8 -1.1 ± 37.8 -2.4 ± 31.1 3.1 ± 31.3  
(%) -11.2 (-24.2, 12.2) -0.4 (-49.3, 72.4) 0.1 (-39.6, 21.6) -13.5 (-37.9, 66.3)  
Week 24 21.9 ± 10 2, 3, 4 †# 43 ± 26.5 1, 4 40.8 ± 26.6 1, 4 63 ± 30.3 1, 2, 3 *0.001
CfB -27.4 ± 29.7 -7.7 ± 48.3 -8 ± 24.2 11.4 ± 37.9  
(%) -40.8 (-76.4, -31.4) -37.8 (-70.1, 155.6) -24.5 (-40.7, 3) 20.1 (-39.8, 120)  
PGE 2 (pg/ml)      
Baseline 16.2 ± 4.9 16.6 ± 5.7 16.6 ± 5.9 16.1 ± 5.3 0.991
Week 12 11.2 ± 4.2 3, 4 12.8 ± 4.9 3, 4 15.1 ± 2.7 1, 2 17.6 ± 2.8 1, 2 *0.001
CfB -5 ± 6.1 -3.8 ± 6.6 -1.6 ± 7.4 1.6 ± 5  
(%) -27.5 (-53.1, 10) -7.4 (-29.2, 0) -7 (-35.4, 26.6) 3.4 (-10.3, 47.3)  
Week 24 4.6 ± 2.3 2, 3, 4 †# 11.3 ± 4.1 1, 4 12.6 ± 3 1, 4 17.3 ± 2.7 1, 2, 3 *0.001
CfB -11.5 ± 5.9 -5.3 ± 8.4 -4 ± 7.4 1.2 ± 5.4  
(%) -69.9 (-80.1, -65) -29.7 (-58.5, -2.8) -32 (-51.4, 15.4) 6 (-17.5, 43.2)  
Estrogen (pg/ml)      
Baseline 15 ± 7.4 15.6 ± 8.1 15.8 ± 8 14.8 ± 8.5 0.983
Week 12 24 ± 7.1 2, 3, 4 17 ± 7.7 1, 4 18.6 ± 6 1, 4 12.7 ± 7.4 1, 2, 3 *0.001
CfB 8.9 ± 11 1.4 ± 11.1 2.7 ± 10.4 -2.1 ± 13  
(%) 65.9 (40.7, 134.2) -14.4 (-36.9, 96.7) -1.7 (-26, 127.5) 1.4 (-45.8, 35.2)  
Week 24 33.7 ± 11.9 2, 3, 4 †# 20.2 ± 7.4 1, 4 21.4 ± 8.1 1, 4 12.9 ± 8.5 1, 2, 3 *0.001
CfB 18.7 ± 11.6 4.6 ± 10.4 5.5 ± 10.2 -1.8 ± 8.8  
(%) 126.6 (50, 215) 52.8 (-8.8, 102.4) 56 (-24.2, 108) 0 (0, 0)  
Osteocalcin (ng/ml)      
Baseline 26.3 ± 8.7 25.8 ± 8.4 26.7 ± 8.6 24.4 ± 7.7 0.891
Week 12 34.4 ± 8.4 4 27.2 ± 8.7 28.5 ± 10.1 23.6 ± 8.2 1 *0.016
CfB 8.1 ± 12.2 1.4 ± 12.1 1.8 ± 14.7 -0.8 ± 11  
(%) 37.8 (-13.4, 83.4) 6.7 (-19.9, 55.2) -2.4 (-34.7, 27.8) 0 (-13.5, 27.4)  
Week 24 39.2 ± 8.7 2, 3, 4 29.8 ± 10.5 1 28.1 ± 9.6 1 22.6 ± 7.3 1 *0.001
CfB 12.9 ± 14.7 4 ± 12.9 1.4 ± 15.1 -1.8 ± 7.6  
(%) 89.1 (9.9, 131.1) 4.6 (-21.7, 67) 15.1 (-30.9, 74.4) 0 (-7.7, 0)  
1, 25 Vit D (pg/ml)      
Baseline 39.9 ± 19.1 41.5 ± 21.9 39.3 ± 17.2 42.3 ± 20.6 0.974
Week 12 50 ± 19.1 † 44.6 ± 17.9 45.4 ± 19.8 41.4 ± 15.7 0.648
CfB 10.1 ± 28.7 3 ± 30.4 6.1 ± 24.7 -1 ± 25.1  
(%) 15.1 (-8.4, 132.5) -28.3 (-39, 146.5) 32.7 (-33.6, 103.2) -11.7 (-34.7, 84.5)  
Week 24 66.9 ± 14.3 2, 3, 4 †# 54.9 ± 23.1 1, 4 49.4 ± 19.1 1, 4 38 ± 19.9 1, 2, 3 *0.007
CfB 26 ± 23 13.4 ± 26.1 7.2 ± 28.5 -4.3 ± 32.8  
(%) 62.4 (4, 204.6) 53 (6.8, 76.7) 44.9 (-34.7, 103.2) -9.2 (-53.5, 62.1)  
CTX (ng/ml)      
Baseline 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.988
Week 12 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.635
CfB -0.1 ± 0.2 0 ± 0.2 0 ± 0.2 0 ± 0.2  
(%) -6.3 (-18.8, 24) -21.7 (-44.2, 47.7) 0 (-25.3, 20.1) -3.7 (-27.5, 42.8)  
Week 24 0.3 ± 0.1 4 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.1 1 *0.006
CfB -0.2 ± 0.2 -0.1 ± 0.2 0 ± 0.2 0 ± 0.2  
(%) -32.8 (-50.2, 0.6) -8.1 (-27.5, 26.3) 5 (-22.6, 23.2) -0.9 (-25.5, 53.1)  
PTH (pg/ml)      
Baseline 90.7 ± 39.5 92.5 ± 46.6 88.1 ± 42.8 94.9 ± 46.6 0.98
Week 12 53.9 ± 34.4 2, 3, 4 83 ± 40.5 1, 4 87.8 ± 39.8 1, 4 92.9 ± 44.6 1, 2, 3 *0.047
CfB -36.8 ± 60.3 -9.4 ± 58.7 -0.1 ± 63.6 -2 ± 57.2  
(%) -57.6 (-70.4, -8.9) -34.8 (-54.6, 88.6) 31.4 (-52.4, 63.7) 16.6 (-43.8, 79.2)  
Week 24 35.8 ± 19.1 2, 3, 4 †# 68.8 ± 36.9 1, 3, 4 80.8 ± 40 1, 2, 4 97.5 ± 40.5 1, 2, 3 *0.001
CfB -54.9 ± 42 -23.6 ± 54.5 -7.3 ± 41.3 2.6 ± 66.9  
(%) -52.4 (-67.8, -28.5) -29.6 (-54.4, 19) -8.9 (-31, 53.9) 9.9 (-41.6, 125.8)  
CT(pg/ml)      
Baseline 1.6 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 0.3 1.6 ± 0.4 0.862
Week 12 12.4 ± 4.7 2, 3, 4 7.9 ± 4.2 1, 4 6.8 ± 2.7 1, 4 1.6 ± 0.3 1, 2, 3 *0.001
CfB 10.8 ± 4.8 6.4 ± 4.1 5.2 ± 2.7 0 ± 0.5  
(%) 709.5 (557.6, 955.2) 729.3 (426.1, 1114.3) 313.4 (182.2, 474.5) 6.8 (-16.3, 25.2)  
Week 24 24 ± 11.8 2, 3, 4 †# 10.2 ± 7 1,4 8.9 ± 3.4 1, 4 1.6 ± 0.4 1, 2, 3 *0.001
CfB 22.5 ± 11.8 8.6 ± 6.7 7.2 ± 3.4 0 ± 0.6  
(%) 1181.8 (939.1, 2014.6) 838.8 (658, 1217.1) 435.7 (287.1, 546.7) 1.6 (-26.5, 42.7)  
Ca2+ (mg/dl)      
Baseline 9.6 ± 0.7 9.5 ± 0.7 9.3 ± 0.7 9.3 ± 0.7 0.503
Week 12 9.3 ± 0.9 9.4 ± 1 9.3 ± 0.8 9.4 ± 0.7 0.963
CfB -0.4 ± 1 -0.2 ± 1.2 0 ± 1.2 0.1 ± 1.2  
(%) -3 (-12.4, 4.2) -0.7 (-15.4, 9.2) 0.1 (-7.4, 2.1) 1.3 (-9.4, 15.6)  
Week 24 9 ± 0.8 9.1 ± 0.8 9.3 ± 0.7 9.4 ± 0.7 0.483
CfB -0.7 ± 1.1 -0.5 ± 0.8 -0.1 ± 1.1 0.1 ± 1.1  
(%) -9.7 (-12.1, 0.3) -7 (-9.5, -3.1) -3.9 (-9.4, 11.2) 4.2 (-10.1, 10.3)  
Phosphorus (mg/dl)      
Baseline 3.7 ± 0.6 3.8 ± 0.5 3.9 ± 0.7 3.6 ± 0.6 0.489
Week 12 3.6 ± 0.6 3.9 ± 0.6 3.6 ± 0.6 3.7 ± 0.7 0.608
CfB -0.1 ± 1 0.1 ± 0.8 -0.3 ± 0.9 0.2 ± 0.7  
(%) -4.2 (-16.3, 26.3) 3.6 (-15.7, 22.2) -7.5 (-20.7, 9.8) 0 (-2.6, 24.1)  
Week 24 3.2 ± 0.6 3.5 ± 0.6 3.7 ± 0.8 3.6 ± 0.7 0.185
CfB -0.5 ± 0.9 -0.3 ± 1 -0.2 ± 1.2 0.1 ± 0.7  
(%) -10.7 (-35.7, 7.6) -15.7 (-23.7, 2.9) 5 (-29, 14.8) 0 (-11.7, 14.1)  
  1. E+S = Exercise + Supplement; E = Exercise; S = Supplement; Con = Control; CfB: Change from Baseline.
  2. *: P < 0.05, significant difference between groups.
  3. : P < 0.05, significantly different from baseline values (within groups, baseline vs. week 12).
  4. #: P < 0.05, significantly different from week 12 values (within groups, week 12 vs. week 24).
  5. Superscripts denote significant differences among the groups (E+S = 1; E = 2; S = 3; and Con = 4).