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Table 3 Serum and muscle markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis for the CARB and NOSS groups

From: Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise while consuming commercially available pre- and post-workout supplements, NO-Shotgun® and NO-Synthesize® on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of protein synthesis, and clinical safety markers in males

Variable Group Day 0 Day 29 Test (p < .05) Group x Test (p < .05)
IGF-1 (pg/ml)     .038* .385
  NOSS 3491.53 ± 597.34 3609.63 ± 497.11   
  CARB 3018.43 ± 690.91 3339.24 ± 70.94   
Myofibrillar Protein (μg/mg)     .041* .049† NOSS > PLC
  NOSS 0.089 ± 0.019 0.115 ± 0.033   
  CARB 0.087 ± 0.128 0.092 ± 0.022   
MHC 1 (arbitrary density units)     .001* .013† NOSS > PLC
  NOSS 1072.93 ± 206.16 1582.37 ± 247.55   
  CARB 1114.95 ± 448.29 1381.76 ± 423.04   
MHC 2A (arbitrary density units)     .001* .046† NOSS > PLC
  NOSS 904.06 ± 500.22 1502.84 ± 412.07   
  CARB 944.11 ± 458.98 1385.97 ± 310.87   
MHC 2X (arbitrary density units)     .003* .244
  NOSS 878.45 ± 328.28 731.70 ± 266.26   
  CARB 979.89 ± 226.74 676.78 ± 163.27   
Myo-D (Abs/mg)     .005* .038† NOSS > PLC
  NOSS 1.72 ± 0.491 2.03 ± 0.399   
  CARB 1.65 ± 0.339 1.74 ± 0.462   
Myogenin (Abs/mg)     .017* .091
  NOSS 1.63 ± 0.398 1.85 ± 0.422   
  CARB 1.57 ± 0.240 1.78 ± 0.405   
MRF-4 (Abs/mg)     .001* .001† NOSS > PLC
  NOSS 1.87 ± 0.236 2.25 ± 0.247   
  CARB 1.83 ± 0.005 1.97 ± 0.003   
  1. Data are presented as means and standard deviations. * Denotes a significant increase at Day 29 compared to Day 0. † Denotes a significant difference between CARB and NOSS.