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Table 1 Preload Properties *

From: Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

  Weight Energy Energy Density Water Vitamin C Fiber Naringin**
  (g) (kcal) (kcal/g) (g) (mg) (g) (mg)
Grapefruit 128 42 0.331 115.8 42.3 1.13 27.1
Grapefruit Juice 127 46 0.370 115.0 48.3 0.13 39.6
Water 127 0 0 127.0 0 0 0
  1. *The amounts of each variable are based on averaging several pieces of fruit and juice using values obtained from NDS-R, Bowes & Church's [34], and data provided by the State of Florida Department of Citrus.
  2. **Naringin content was chosen to represent bioflavonoid content as it comprises the majority of total flavanones in GF and GFJ, and has been associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The Davis spectrophotometric method [66] was used to determine flavanones contents.