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Table 2 Baseline Descriptive Characteristics of Subjects Randomized to Preload Group (n = 85)*

From: Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

Characteristic Grapefruit Group Grapefruit Juice Group Water Group
  (n = 29) (n = 28) (n = 28)
Completed Study (#, %) 23 (79.3%) 22 (78.6%) 23 (82.1%)
Gender    
   Male 11 (37.9%) 3 (10.7%) 7 (25%)
   Female 18 (62.1%) 25 (89.3%) 21 (75%)
Race    
   Caucasian 13 (44.8%) 19 (67.9%) 19 (67.9%)
   African American 16 (55.2%) 9 (32.1%) 9 (32.1%)
Education    
   High School Degree 3 (10.3%) 3 (10.7%) 3 (10.7%)
   Undergraduate Degree 15 (51.7%) 17 (60.7%) 21 (75.0%)
   Graduate Degree 11 (37.9%) 8 (28.6%) 4 (14.3%)
Past Smokerc 2 (6.9%) 5 (17.9%) 3 (10.7%)
Age (years ± SD)a 37.6 ± 7.4 39.8 ± 8.4 38.7 ± 8.8
Height (cm ± SD) 165.9 ± 8.4 165.1 ± 6.4 166.9 ± 8.9
Weight (kg ± SD) 99.8 ± 13.8 95.9 ± 11.5 99.5 ± 13.5
Body Mass Index (mean ± SD)b 36.3 ± 3.1 35.2 ± 3.1 35.7 ± 3.5
Assessment of Eating Disorder    
   EAT-26d 10.6 ± 6.4 10.4 ± 5.9 9.1 ± 5.9
   Dietary Restraint Scoree 10.5 ± 4.4 10.9 ± 3.5 10.7 ± 4.0
   Disinhibition Scoree 7.5 ± 2.7 8.2 ± 3.4 8.6 ± 3.0
   Hunger Tendency Scoree 5.3 ± 2.6 6.3 ± 3.2 6.1 ± 3.3
Depression History 1 (3.4%) 3 (10.7%) 2 (7.1%)
Metabolic Syndromef 11 (37.9%) 6 (21.4%) 6 (21.4%)
  1. a. Age 21-50 years required at study entry.
  2. b. BMI 30-39.9 required to meet study eligibility.
  3. c. Current (within past year) non-smoker required to meet study eligibility.
  4. d. EAT-26 measures general eating disorder pathology; score ≥ 20 was criteria for study exclusion.
  5. e. Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, dietary restraint score ≥ 14 was criteria for study exclusion.
  6. f. Meeting ≥ 3 of 5 NCEP-ATPIII criteria.
  7. * Demographic characteristics were not significantly different at baseline among randomly assigned preload groups based on Chi-square test of independence for categorical variables and one-way ANOVA for continuous variables.