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Table 3 Change in Outcome Variables from Baseline to Study Completion by Preload Group

From: Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

  GF Preload (n = 29) GFJ Preload (n = 28) Water Preload (n = 28)  
  (mean ± SD) (mean ± SD) (mean ± SD) P*
Energy Expenditure     
RQ (VCO2/VO2) 0.0 ± 0.1 0.0 ± 0.1 0.0 ± 0.1 0.618
REE (kcal) 4.5 ± 27.9 42.1 ± 18.4 - 37.1 ± 22.6 0.151
REE Adjusted (kcal/kg/lbm) 1.6 ± 4.6 1.7 ± 5.1 0.9 ± 5.2 0.078
Body Composition     
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) - 1.6 ± 1.6 - 1.9 ± 1.4 - 2.1 ± 1.1 0.523
Waist Circumference (cm) - 4.0 ± 4.1 - 5.5 ± 5.7 - 5.4 ± 4.8 0.189
Fat Tissue Mass (kg) - 2.6 ± 2.1 - 2.9 ± 2.9 - 2.5 ± 2.1 0.499
Total Body Fat (%) - 1.1 ± 1.8 - 1.1 ± 1.9 - 1.2 ± 2.6 0.489
Trunk Fat (%) - 1.4 ± 2.9 - 1.7 ± 2.6 - 1.2 ± 2.6 0.154
Android Fat (%) - 1.9 ± 2.4 - 1.2 ± 2.7 - 1.5 ± 3.3 0.239
Gynoid Fat (%) - 1.5 ± 2.4 - 0.5 ± 2.9 - 0.7 ± 4.5 0.114
Lean Tissue Mass (kg) - 0.9 ± 2.1 - 1.9 ± 1.9 0.3 ± 2.4 0.127
Lean Tissue Mass (%) 1.1 ± 2.4 0.8 ± 2.0. 1.8 ± 2.6 0.230
BMC (kg) 0.2 ± 0.2 0.0 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.2 0.587
Glycemia and Blood Pressure    
Fasting Glucose (mmol/L) 0.1 ± 0.3 0.1 ± .0.4 0.0 ± 0.4 0.969
Fasting Insulin (uU/mL) - 0.5 ± 4.7 - 0.3 ± 3.7 - 0.8 ± 7.4 0.691
HOMAIR Score - 0.2 ± 1. - 0.1 ± 0.8 - 0.6 ± 1.6 0.095
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) - 3.1 ± 7.8 -3.1 ± 7.4 - 1.5 ± 6.3 0.922
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) - 0.3 ± 8.1 - 3.8 ± 9.1 0.1 ± 8.1 0.565
Lipids     
Triglycerides (mg/dl) - 6.7 ± 40.6 - 9.4 ± 31.9 - 4.3 ± 26.2 0.166
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 3.0 ± 21.3 - 3.2 ± 14.9 2.5 ± 11.1 0.419
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 1.8 ± 3.2 5.3 ± 7.9 3.5 ± 7.7 0.498
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 3.0 ± 5.2 4.9 ± 7.5** -2.0 ± 7.2 0.020
HDL to total cholesterol ratio - 0.2 ± 0.4 - 0.4 ± 0.7** 0.2 ± 0.6 0.025
  1. *P <. 0.05 indicating statistically significant difference by ANCOVA, with baseline value included as covariate. For outcomes showing significant differences by ANCOVA, simple contrasts were conducted within ANCOVA to determine which preloads were significantly different.
  2. ** Significantly different from water preload, P s = 0.017.