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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants

From: Changes in dominant groups of the gut microbiota do not explain cereal-fiber induced improvement of whole-body insulin sensitivity

Characteristics of participants Control HCF HP MIX p value1
Gender (males/females) 8/10 5/11 7/12 6/10 0.93
Age - yr 55.3 ± 1.9 54.2 ± 3.2 57.4 ± 1.8 55.3 ± 1.9 0.76
Waist circumference - cm 101.6 ± 2.1 101.4 ± 1.9 101.4 ± 2.6 100.6 ± 3.3 0.99
BMI (kg/m2) 31.0 ± 0.8 31.9 ± 0.8 31.4 ± 0.9 31.4 ± 1.0 0.92
M-value (mg·kg-1·min-1) 4.4 ± 0.5 3.8 ± 0.4 4.0 ± 0.4 4.4 ± 0.4 0.67
Fecal SCFA (mM)      
Acetate (C2) 40.2 ± 3.1 38.8 ± 4.5 39.3 ± 4.4 39.8 ± 3.9 0.88
Propionate (C3) 12.4 ± 1.1 13.3 ± 1.4 13.0 ± 1.3 15.1 ± 1.5 0.64
Butyrate (C4) 12.3 ± 1.5 12.8 ± 2.4 13.6 ± 1.9 13.1 ± 1.7 0.98
Valerate (C5) 2.3 ± 0.3 2.0 ± 0.3 2.2 ± 0.2 2.2 ± 0.2 0.66
Sum SCFA1
Gut microbiota groups (%)
70.8 ± 5.3 69.5 ± 7.8 71.6 ± 6.7 73.1 ± 6.5 0.90
Bac303 7.1 ± 1.8 5.4 ± 1.4 5.5 ± 1.9 9.4 ± 3.0 0.72
Erec482 26.1 ± 2.7 24.3 ± 3.4 23.2 ± 2.9 23.0 ± 2.7 0.76
Rrec584 10.0 ± 2.2 10.6 ± 2.4 8.6 ± 1.8 6.9 ± 1.4 0.78
Clep866 11.4 ± 1.2 13.6 ± 1.7 14.1 ± 2.0 10.7 ± 1.7 0.66
Ato291 2.4 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 1.0 3.5 ± 0.7 3.8 ± 0.7 0.25
Bif164 4.0 ± 1.0 2.2 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 1.0 0.46
Prop853 4.9 ± 1.2 7.9 ± 1.3 9.5 ± 1.8 6.7 ± 1.6 0.13
Fecal dry mass (%) 26.0 ± 1.8 28.2 ± 2.7 26.3 ± 1.8 26.4 ± 1.8 0.98
  1. All values are mean ± SEM. HCF, diet high in cereal fiber; HP, diet high in protein; MIX, diet moderately high in both cereal and protein. M value, insulin mediated glucose uptake as a measurement for whole body insulin sensitivity. SCFA, fecal short chain fatty acids.
  2. Bac303, Bacteroides-Prevotella; Erec482, Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectale cluster; Rrec584, Roseburia genus, Clep866, Clostridium leptum cluster; Ato291, Atopobium cluster; Bif164, Bifidobacterium group; Prop853, clostridial cluster IX. Total bacteria were detected with the EUB338 probe.
  3. 1 P values refer to the respective treatment × time interaction in the full model
  4. 2Sum SCFA includes the measurement of fecal iso-acids