Effects of serum treatment on mitochondrial biogenesis in human adipocytes. Cultured human adipocytes were incubated for 48 hours with human serum collected on day 0 (baseline), 7 or 28 after high dairy diet or soy-based control diet. (a) Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) and (b) PGC-1α were significantly increased by dairy at day 7 compared to baseline and soy-based diet. Values are expressed as means of % change to baseline ± SE (n = 4 to 5 subjects/group). Gene expression data are normalized to 18S. Differing letters above the bars denote significant differences between groups, p ≤ 0.05.