Characteristic

Prevalence^{2}%

OR(95% CI)^{3}

PValue^{4}

PValue^{5}


Sex
   
0.98

Men (n = 9020)

3.2

1.0 (0.83, 1.19)

NS
 
Women (n = 9549)^{6}

3.0

1.0


 
Raceethnicity
   
< 0.0001

NonHispanic white (n = 8170)

3.4

2.48 (1.78, 3.45)

< 0.001
 
NonHispanic black (n = 4351)^{6}

0.2

1.0


 
Mexican American/Hispanic (n = 6048)

3.0

2.77 (1.86, 4.14)

0.0003
 
Age
   
< 0.0001

< 60 y (n = 14142)^{6}

1.9

1.0


 
60 y (n = 4427)

8.3

4.01 (3.26, 4.92)

< 0.0001
 
Supplement use^{7}
   
< 0.0001

Yes (n = 7681)^{6}

2.8

1.0


 
No (n = 10888)

3.5

1.82 (1.40, 2.37)

< 0.0001
 
Serum creatinine^{8}
   
< 0.0001

< 130 μmol/L (n = 18238)^{6}

2.7

1.0


 
130 μmol/L (n = 331)

34.1

12.6 (8.99, 17.7)

< 0.0001
 
Serum vitamin B12^{9}
   
< 0.0001

< 148 pmol/L (n = 349)

27.6

13.5 (9.29, 19.6)

< 0.0001
 
148 pmol/L (n = 18220)^{6}

2.6

1.0


 
 ^{1}n = 18569. NHANES 19992000, 20012002, and 20032004 were combined into one analytic data set, 19992004. NHANESs 19992004 were conducted in the postfolic acid fortification period. Overall prevalence of serum MMA > 350 nmol/L was 3.1 ± 0.2 (% and SE)
 ^{2}Population prevalence of serum MMA > 350 pmol/L was based on weighted sample size
 ^{3}Odds ratio and 95% Wald confidence intervals in the multivariate logistic regression analysis
 ^{4}Significance in comparison to the referent category within the variable (P for Wald χ^{2})
 ^{5}Overall significance of variable in the logistic regression model (P for Wald χ^{2})
 ^{6}Referent group
 ^{7}Persons who took vitamin/mineral supplements 1 month prior to the survey
 ^{8}Impaired renal function is defined as having serum creatinine ≥ 130 μmol/L
 ^{9}Vitamin B12 deficiency is defined as having serum vitamin B12 < 148 pmol/L