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Table 3 Prevalence and likelihood of having high serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) in persons with serum creatinine < 130 μmol/L concentrations in the post-folic acid fortification period: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 1999-20041

From: Population prevalence, attributable risk, and attributable risk percentage for high methylmalonic acid concentrations in the post-folic acid fortification period in the US

Characteristic Prevalence2 % OR(95% CI)3 P-Value4 P-Value5
Race-ethnicity     < 0.0001
   Non-Hispanic white (n = 7995)6 3.0 1.0 --  
   Non-Hispanic black (n = 4247) 0.8 0.28 (0.18, 0.44) < 0.0001  
   Mexican American/Hispanic (n = 5996) 2.8 1.1 (0.81, 1.50)n n/s  
Age     < 0.0001
   < 60 y (n = 14090)6 1.8 1.0 --  
   60 y (n = 4148) 6.8 4.38 (3.58, 5.36) < 0.0001  
Supplement use7     < 0.0001
   Yes (n = 7506)6 2.3 1.0 --  
   No (n = 10732) 3.1 1.93 (1.48, 2.52) < 0.0001  
Serum vitamin B-128     < 0.0001
   < 148 pmol/L (n = 343) 26.3 13.3 (9.0, 19.5) < 0.0001  
   148 pmol/L (n = 17895)6 2.2 1.0 --  
  1. 1 n = 18238; NHANES 1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004 were combined into one analytic data set, 1999-2004. NHANESs 1999-2004 were conducted in the post-folic acid fortification period. Data associated with sex variable are not shown because in logistic regression sex was not significantly related to serum MMA concentrations (P < 0.98).
  2. 2Serum MMA > 350 pmol/L
  3. 3Odds ratio and 95% Wald confidence intervals in the multivariate logistic regression analysis
  4. 4Significance in comparison to the referent category within the variable (P for Wald χ2)
  5. 5Overall significance of variable (sex, race-ethnicity, supplement use, age, serum creatinine, or serum vitamin B-12) in the logistic regression model (P for Wald χ2)
  6. 6Referent group
  7. 7Persons who took vitamin/mineral supplements 1 month prior to the survey
  8. 8Vitamin B-12 deficiency is defined as having serum vitamin B-12 < 148 pmol/L