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Table 5 Population attributable risk (PAR) and population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) for high serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) for persons with serum creatinine < 130 μmol/L in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), 1999-20041

From: Population prevalence, attributable risk, and attributable risk percentage for high methylmalonic acid concentrations in the post-folic acid fortification period in the US

Characteristic Cases2 PAR3 PAR%4
Race-ethnicity5    
   Non-Hispanic white (n = 7995) 297 0.783 29.0
   Non non-Hispanic white (n = 10243)6, 7 180 -- --
Age5    
   < 60 y (n = 14090)6 188 -- --
   60 y (n = 4148) 289 0.950 35.2
Supplement use8, 9    
   Yes (n = 7506)6 192 -- --
   No (n = 10732) 285 0.444 16.4
Serum vitamin B-128, 10    
   < 148 pmol/L (n = 343) 105 0.485 18.0
   148 pmol/L (n = 17895)6 372 -- --
  1. 1n = 18238; NHANES 1999-2000, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004 were combined into one analytic data set, 1999-2004. NHANESs, 1999-2004 were conducted after the folic acid fortification commenced. PAR and PAR% for sex were not presented because sex variable was not significantly related to high serum MMA in the logistic regression model (P = 0.98)
  2. 2Number of cases with serum MMA > 350 nmol/L
  3. 3Incidence of a condition/disease in the population due to the presence of risk factor or incidence of a condition/disease in the population that would be reduced if risk factor was removed. PAR was calculated based on weighted sample size. PAR = (Incidence of high MMATotal sample × 100) - (Incidence of high serum MMAReferent group × 100). Incidence of high serum MMATotal sample = Cases of high serum MMATotal sample/Sample sizeTotal. Incidence of high serum MMAReferent group = Cases of high serum MMAReferent group/Sample sizeReferent group.
  4. 4Percent of incidence of a condition/disease in the population due to presence of risk factor or percent of incidence of a condition/disease in the population that would be reduced if risk factor was removed. PAR% was calculated based on weighted sample size. PAR% = (Incidence of high serum MMATotal sample - Incidence of high serum MMAReferent group ÷ Incidence of high serum MMATotal sample) x100
  5. 5Non-modifiable risk factor for high serum MMA
  6. 6Referent group
  7. 7In order to achieve a dichotomous variable for race-ethnicity, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American/Hispanic were combined into one category, non-non-Hispanic white.
  8. 8Modifiable risk factor for high serum MMA
  9. 9Persons who took vitamin/mineral supplements 1 month prior to the survey
  10. 10Vitamin B-12 deficiency was defined as having serum vitamin B-12 < 148 pmol/L