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Table 1 Quick reference guide: Overview of available reverse cholesterol transport studies

From: Regulation of reverse cholesterol transport - a comprehensive appraisal of available animal studies

Factor investigated Intervention Animal model Type of macrophages used Effect on RCT Ref
Macrophage      
ApoE ApoE knockout macrophages Wild-type mice Peritoneal [24]
CE hydrolysis Human nCEH transgenic macrophages LDLr knockout mice Peritoneal [29]
ABCA1 ABCA1 knockout macrophages Wild-type mice Bone marrow [30, 31]
ABCG1 ABCG1 overexpression in macrophages Wild-type mice J774 [31]
  ABCG1 knockdown in macrophages Wild-type mice J774 [31]
  ABCG1 knockout macrophages Wild-type mice Bone marrow [31]
ABCA1/ABCG1 ABCA1/ABCG1 double knockdown in macrophages Wild-type mice J774 [31]
  ABCA1/ABCG1 double knockout macrophages Wild-type mice Bone marrow [32]
SR-BI SR-BI knockout macrophages Wild-type mice Bone marrow = [31]
  SR-BI knockout macrophages Wild-type mice Bone marrow = [33]
ABCA1/SR-BI ABCA1/SR-BI double knockout macrophages Wild-type mice Bone marrow [33]
PLTP PLTP knockout macrophages Wild-type mice Peritoneal = [34]
CETP CETP overexpression in macrophages Wild-type mice RAW 267.4 = [35]
  CETP overexpression in macrophages Wild-type mice Peritoneal = [36]
15(S)-lipoxygenase-1 Human 15(S)-lipoxygenase-1 overexpression in macrophages Wild-type mice RAW 267.4 [37]
Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 MyD88 knockout macrophages Wild-type Peritoneal [38]
Transport through the plasma compartment      
ApoA-I Adenoviral overexpression human apoA-I Wild-type mice J774 [18]
  ApoA-I knockout LDLr/apobec double knockout mice J774 [39]
  Adenoviral overexpression mouse or human apoA-I (wild-type or apoA-I Milano) ApoA-I knockout mice J774 [40, 41]
  Ro 11-1464 Human apoA-I transgenic mice J774 [42]
ApoA-I tertiary structural domain AAV overexpression domain-swap variants of human and mouse apoA-I ApoA-I knockout mice J774 [40]
ApoA-I Milano versus wild-type apoA-I AAV overexpression ApoA-I knockout mice J774 = [41]
ApoA-I mimetic peptides D-4 F ApoE knockout mice J774 [43]
  5A Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 [17]
  ATI-5261 ApoE knockout mice J774 [44]
HDL particle formation ABCA1 knockout ABCA1 knockout mice Endogenous [45]
  ABCA1 knockout ABCA1 knockout mice Peritoneal [33]
  Probucol Wild-type mice J774 = [46]
  Probucol SR-BI knockout mice J774 [46]
LCAT AAV overexpression human LCAT Human apoA-I transgenic mice J774 [47]
  AAV overexpression human LCAT Human apoA-I transgenic mice overexpressing SR-BI J774 = [47]
  AAV overexpression human LCAT Human apoA-I transgenic mice overexpressing human CETP J774 = [47]
  LCAT knockout LCAT knockout mice J774 [47]
Hepatic lipase HL knockout HL knockout mice J774 = [48]
Endothelial lipase EL knockout EL knockout mice J774 = [48]
  Inhibition hepatic proprotein convertases Wild-type mice J774 [49]
Hepatic lipase/endothelial lipase HL/EL double knockout HL/EL double knockout mice J774 = [48]
PLTP PLTP overexpression Human PLTP transgenic mice Peritoneal [34]
CETP Adenoviral CETP overexpression Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 [35]
  AAV overexpression human CETP Apobec knockout mice J774 [50]
  AAV overexpression human CETP LDLr/apobec double knockout mice J774 = [50]
  AAV overexpression human CETP SR-BI knockout mice J774 [50]
  CETP overexpression Cynomolgus monkey CETP transgenic mice P388D1 or peritoneal = [36]
  CETP overexpression Human CETP transgenic mice Bone marrow = [51]
CETP inhibition Torcetrapib Hamsters J774 [35]
  Torcetrapib Hamsters Peritoneal [52]
  Torcetrapib Human CETP/human apoB100 transgenic mice J774 [53]
  Anacetrapib Hamsters Peritoneal = [52]
  Anacetrapib Hamsters J774 [54]
  Dalcetrapib Hamsters Peritoneal [52]
ApoA-II Overexpression human apoA-II Human apoA-II transgenic mice P388D1 ↑ or = [55]
ApoF AAV overexpression mouse apoF Wild-type mice J774 = [56]
Uptake by the liver      
Selective uptake Adenoviral overexpression SR-BI Wild-type mice J774 [57]
  Adenoviral overexpression SR-BI Human apoA-I transgenic mice J774 [57]
  SR-BI knockout SR-BI knockout mice J774 [57]
  SR-BI knockout SR-BI knockout mice Peritoneal [33]
  SR-BI knockout SR-BI knockout mice Bone marrow [51]
  Transgenic CETP overexpression SR-BI knockout mice Bone marrow = [51]
  Liver-specific SR-BI knockout SR-BI conditional knockout mice Bone marrow [51]
  Transgenic CETP overexpression SR-BI conditional knockout mice Bone marrow = [51]
Holoparticle uptake P2Y13 knockout P2Y13 knockout mice Peritoneal [58]
Type 1 diabetes mellitus Alloxan Wild-type mice Peritoneal [59]
  Streptozotocin Wild-type mice J774 [60]
  Streptozotocin Hp2-2 mice J774 [60]
Excretion into the intestine      
CE hydrolysis liver Adenoviral overexpression human nCEH Wild-type mice J774 [61]
  Carboxyl ester lipase knockout Carboxyl ester lipase knockout mice J774 [62]
ABCG5/ABCG8 ABCG5/ABCG8 double knockout ABCG5/ABCG8 double knockout mice P388D1 = [63]
Biliary sterol secretion Bile duct ligation Wild-type mice Peritoneal [64]
  Surgical biliary diversion Wild-type mice J774 = [65]
  Transgenic overexpression NPC1L1 in the liver Liver-specific human NPC1L1 transgenic mice J774 = [65]
MDR2 MDR2 knockout MDR2 knockout mice Peritoneal [64]
Excretion from the body      
NPC1L1 intestine Ezetimibe Wild-type mice J774 [66]
  Ezetimibe Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 [67]
Cholesterol absorption intestine Congenic 14DKK interval 14DKK congenic mice RAW 264.7 [67]
  Congenic 14DKK interval 14DKK apoE knockout congenic mice Bone marrow [68]
Inflammation      
Acute inflammatory response LPS Wild-type mice Peritoneal [69]
  LPS Wild-type mice J774 [70]
  Zymosan Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 [71]
Human group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 Overexpression human group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 Human group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 transgenic mice Peritoneal = [69]
Serum amyloid A Adenoviral overexpression human serum amyloid A Wild-type mice Peritoneal = [69]
  Adenoviral overexpression mouse serum amyloid A Wild-type mice Peritoneal [69]
Myeloperoxidase Human myeloperoxidase Wild-type mice Peritoneal [69]
Mast cell activation Mast cell degranulating compound 48/80 Wild-type mice treated with human apoA-I J774 [72]
Drugs      
LXR agonist GW3965 Wild-type mice J774 [73, 74]
  GW3965 LDLr/apobec double knockout mice J774 [73]
  GW3965 ApoB/CETP double transgenic mice J774 [73]
  T0901317 Wild-type BALB/c mice J774 [75]
  GW3965 Hamsters J774 [76]
  T0901317 Wild-type mice P388D1 [63]
  T0901317 ABCG5/ABCG8 double knockout mice P388D1 = [63]
  T0901317 Wild-type FVB mice Peritoneal [64]
  T0901317 MDR2 knockout mice Peritoneal = [64]
  GW3965 LXR double knockout mice J774 = [74]
  GW3965 Wild-type mice Bone marrow (wild-type and LXR double knockout) = [74]
Intestine-specific LXR activation Constitutively activated LXRα in the intestine iVP16LXRα transgenic mice J774 [77]
Liver-specific LXR activation Adenoviral overexpression constitutively active LXRα Wild-type FVB mice J774 = [77]
Intestine-specific LXR agonist GW6340 Wild-type mice J774 [74]
PPARα agonist GW7647 Wild-type mice J774 [78]
  GW7647 Human apoA-I transgenic mice J774 [78]
  GW7647 LDLr/apobec double knockout mice J774 [78]
  GW7647 Human apoA-I transgenic mice Bone marrow (PPARα knockout) = [78]
  GW7647 Human apoA-I transgenic mice Bone marrow (LXR double knockout) = [78]
  Fenofibrate Human apoA-I transgenic mice P388D1 [79]
  Gemfibrozil Human apoA-I transgenic mice P388D1 = [79]
PPARδ agonist GW0742 Wild-type mice J774 [66]
PPARγ agonist GW7845 Wild-type mice J774 [80]
FXR agonist GW4064 Wild-type mice J774 [81]
  GW4064 SR-BI knockout mice J774 [81]
Liver-specific FXR activation Adenoviral overexpression constitutively active FXR Wild-type mice J774 [81]
miR-33 antagonism Anti-miR33 oligonucleotide LDLr knockout mice Bone marrow [82]
Liver-selective thyromimetic T-0681 Wild-type mice J774 [83]
  T-0681 CETP transgenic mice J774 = [83]
Sylfonylurea agent Glibenclamide Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 = [84]
  Glimepiride Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 = [84]
Anti-HIV drug Nevirapine Human apoA-I transgenic mice J774 = [85]
  Efavirenz Human apoA-I transgenic mice J774 [85]
Phosphodiesterase 3 inhibition Cilostazol Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 [86]
Proteasomal inhibition Bortezomib Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 [87]
Propolis extract Ethanolic extract of propolis Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 [88]
Dietary modifications      
Dietary cholesterol Cholesterol-enriched diet Hamsters Peritoneal [89]
Dietary cholesterol and fat Saturated fatty acid- and cholesterol-enriched diet Wild-type mice P388D1 [90]
  Saturated fatty acid-enriched diet Wild-type mice P388D1 = [90]
Coffee Coffee Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 = [91]
  Ferulic acid Wild-type mice RAW 264.7 [91]
Fish oil Fish oil Wild-type mice J774 [92]
Exercise      
Exercise Voluntary wheel running Wild-type mice Peritoneal = [93]
  Monitored wheel running Human CETP transgenic mice J774 [94]
  1. Wild-type; if not otherwise stated this term refers to the use of C57BL/6 mice