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Table 3 Microbiota and microbial enzyme activity in the caecal digesta of rats consuming control (C) and inulin (IN) diets without or with the addition of grapefruit flavonoid extract (GFE)

From: Does dietary inulin affect biological activity of a grapefruit flavonoid-rich extract?

Index Diet Pooled
SEM
ANOVA (P value)
  C IN C + GFE IN + GFE   IN GFE IN × GFE
Microbiota*         
   Bifidobacteria 9.14b 10.35a 8.12c 8.50bc 0.081 < 0.05 < 0.05 NS
   Lactic acid bacteria 9.43 9.20 9.17 8.98 0.088 NS NS NS
   E. coli 8.30 6.14 8.42 7.20 0.161 < 0.001 NS NS
   Spore-forming bacteria         
Anaerobic saccharolytic 1.31 1.12 0.92 0.90 0.050 NS < 0.01 NS
Anaerobic proteolytic 1.19b < 1.0c 2.54a 1.89a 0.113 < 0.01 < 0.001 NS
Enzyme activity         
   α-glucosidase 1.14b 1.09b 1.21b 1.99a 0.117 NS < 0.05 < 0.05
   β-glucosidase 0.355 0.348 0.191 0.214 0.021 NS < 0.001 NS
   α-galactosidase 0.897b 0.586b 0.679b 2.076a 0.155 < 0.05 < 0.05 < 0.001
   β-galactosidase 3.29b 1.86b 2.10b 17.14a 1.243 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
   β-glucuronidase 1.256a 0.687b 0.544b 0.421b 0.090 < 0.05 < 0.01 NS
  1. a, b, c Values not sharing the same superscript letters within a row are different at P ≤ 0.05.
  2. * log cfu/g digesta.
  3. μmol/min/g digesta.