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Table 4 Effects of consuming the soluble cocoa products were studied using subjective bowel function questionnaires (Mean values and standard error of mean (SEM), n = 44)

From: Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention

  Soft stools Hard stools Strain to have BM Pain to have BM Blood seen with BM
Stage Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM
Non-cocoa 1.29 0.09 2.01 0.10 1.44 0.09 0.72 0.08 0.09 0.03
Cocoa product A 1.27 0.12 2.09 0.16 1.48 0.14 0.66 0.11 0.14 0.05
Cocoa product B 1.52 0.12 1.91 0.15 1.41 0.13 0.72 0.11 0.09 0.04
  N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S.
  1. BM, bowel movement. A 4-point scale was used to answer where 0 = never, 1 = rarely, 2 = sometimes, 3 = frequently and 4 = always.
  2. Effects were evaluated using a generalized estimating equations with repeated measures (stage) and one fixed factor (cocoa product) were applied. Where there was a significant main effect, post hoc Bonferroni tests were also used to analyse differences between means.