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Table 5 Effects of consuming the soluble cocoa products were studied using a subjective bowel function questionnaire (Mean values and standard error of mean (SEM), n = 44)

From: Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention

  Feel bowel completely empty Have BM once per day Pass gas during day Have crampy abdominal pain Have haemorrhoid problems
Stage Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM
Non-cocoa 2.67 0.10 2.93a 0.10 2.14 0.09 1.20 0.08 0.39 0.06
Cocoa product A 2.73 0.11 3.09a 0.13 2.07 0.15 1.09 0.11 0.32 0.08
Cocoa product B 2.75 0.12 3.27a 0.11 2.32 0.14 1.27 0.12 0.34 0.09
  N.S. p = 0.009 N.S. N.S. N.S.
  1. BM, bowel movement. A 4-point scale was used to answer where 0 = never, 1 = rarely, 2 = sometimes, 3 = frequently and 4 = always.
  2. Effects were evaluated using a generalized estimating equations with repeated measures (stage) and one fixed factor (cocoa product) were applied. Where there was a significant main effect, post hoc Bonferroni tests were also used to analyse differences between means.