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Table 6 Effects of consuming the soluble cocoa products were studied using a subjective bowel function questionnaire (Mean values and standard error of mean (SEM), n = 44)

From: Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention

  Have diarrhoea Urgency to go to toilet for BM Consider myself constipated Time to have BM* (min)
Stage Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM
Non-cocoa 1.00a 0.07 3.28 0.08 1.34a 0.10 0.99a 0.10
Cocoa product A 0.79a 0.10 3.27 0.11 1.36a 0.14 0.98a 0.11
Cocoa product B 0.77a 0.09 3.43 0.09 1.16a 0.13 0.79a 0.13
  p = 0.043 N.S. p = 0.046 p = 0.016
  1. BM, bowel movement. A 4-point scale was used to answer where 0 = never, 1 = rarely, 2 = sometimes, 3 = frequently and 4 = always.
  2. Effects were evaluated using generalized estimating equations with repeated measures (stage) and one fixed factor (cocoa product) were applied. Where there was a significant main effect, post hoc Bonferroni tests were also used to analyse differences between means. * Time to have BM = duration of defecation.