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Table 7 Effects of consuming the soluble cocoa products were assessed using a symptom related to bowel habits questionnaire (Mean values and standard error of mean (SEM), n = 44)

From: Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention

  Flatulence Bloating Stool consistency Ease of movement Abdominal Pain
Stage Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM
Non-cocoa 2.14a 0.09 1.08 0.11 2.36 0.07 1.15 0.11 0.51 0.08
Cocoa product A 2.07a 0.14 1.00 0.17 2.36 0.13 1.11 0.16 0.46 0.13
Cocoa product B 2.32a 0.14 1.11 0.15 2.18 0.10 1.16 0.16 0.52 0.10
  p = 0.019 N.S. N.S. N.S. N.S.
  1. A 5-point scale was used to answer where 0 indicates no gas, no bloating, watery stool consistency, easy to pass and no pain, respectively; 5 indicates, severe, hard or difficult where appropriate. Effects were evaluated using generalized estimating equations with repeated measures (stage) and one fixed factor (cocoa product) were applied. Where there was a significant main effect, post hoc Bonferroni tests were used to analyse differences between means.