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Table 8 Effects of consuming the soluble cocoa products on daily bowel movements was assessed by a daily diary (mean week values and standard error of mean (SEM), n = 44)

From: Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: a free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention

  Daily Bowel movements Straining at defecation Feeling of incomplete and/or difficult defecation Lumpy or hard stools
Stage Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM Mean SEM
Non-cocoa 1.14a 0.04 0.14 0.02 0.15 0.02 0.28 0.03
Cocoa product A 1.29b 0.04 0.18 0.02 0.19 0.02 0.32 0.03
Cocoa product B 1.30b 0.04 0.17 0.02 0.15 0.02 0.27 0.03
  p = 0.002 N.S. N.S. p = 0.042
  1. Volunteers were asked to record the number of bowel movements per day and give yes/no responses to the rest of the questions. For statistical purposes, the conversion of yes = 1 and no = 0 was applied. For all questions the mean was calculated per week.
  2. Effects on daily bowel movements was studied using a mixed model with repeated measures (stage) with one factorial fixed factor (cocoa product). Effects on straining at defecation, feeling of incomplete and/or difficult defecation and on producing lumpy or hard stools were evaluated using generalized estimating equations with repeated measures (stage) and one fixed factor (cocoa product) were applied. Where there was a significant main effect, post hoc Bonferroni tests were used to analyse differences between means.
  3. a, bMean values within a column with unlike superscript values were significantly different according to Bonferroni test.