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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients in the present study (n = 66)

From: High prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in type 2 diabetics with hypoadiponectinemia and metabolic syndrome

  Metabolic syndrome (-) (n = 38) Metabolic syndrome (+) (n = 28) p value
Gender, male/female 18/20 9/19 0.210
Age, years 63 ± 1 (36-78) 67 ± 2 (40-88) 0.101
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.2 ± 0.53 (19.1-32.7) 25.9 ± 0.62 (20.9-36.4) 0.016
Waist circumference, cm 84.1 ± 1.3 (69-104) 91.4 ± 1.3 (65-109) 0.002
Estimated visceral fat area, cm2 97 ± 7 (34-192) 154 ± 8 (101-226) < 0.0001
Estimated glomerular filtration rate, mL/min 74.4 ± 2.9 (34.4-114) 64.8 ± 3.3 (28.8-97.3) 0.039
Blood glucose, mg/dL 131 ± 46 (83-261) 130 ± 7 (84-196) 0.823
Fasting immunoreactive insulin, μIU/mL (n = 50) 8.6 ± 0.9 (2.9-15.0) 9.0 ± 1.1 (2.9-26.2) 0.860
HbA1c (NGSP), % 7.1 ± 0.1 (5.9-10.6) 7.2 ± 0.2 (5.6-9.6) 0.702
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 130 ± 2 (105-180) 134 ± 3 (110-160) 0.708
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 74 ± 1 (60-100) 76 ± 1 (60-91) 0.423
Triglyceride, mg/dL 109 ± 9 (41-260) 150 ± 12 (78-396) 0.011
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mg/dL 59 ± 2 (34-97) 54 ± 2 (38-93) 0.181
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mg/dL 111 ± 5 (57-208) 116 ± 6 (57-203) 0.550
Smoking (none/ex-/current-smoker) 15/13/10 9/13/6 0.604
Brinkman index 531 ± 106 (0-3000) 538 ± 124 (0-1800) 0.622
Duration of diabetes, years 10 ± 1 (1-38) 11 ± 1 (1-38) 0.529
Diabetic neuropathy 7 10 0.104
Diabetic retinopathy (NDR/SDR/PDR) 31/3/4 18/6/4 0.314
Diabetic nephropathy (stage I/II/III) 25/8/5 16/5/7 0.359
Hypertension 11 22 0.009
Dyslipidemia 21 21 0.100
Medications for hypertension (CA/ACEIorARB/β/diuretics/α) 7/12/3/1/1 15/18/3/2/1 0.309
Medications for diabetes (SU/BG/αGI/glinide/Insulin) 15/8/7/2/11 11/11/8/0/5 0.157
Medications for dyslipidemia (statins/fibrate) 16/0 16/0 0.125
Serum adiponectin, μg/mL (all; n = 66) 9.8 ± 0.9 (2.3-33.5) 8.4 ± 1.1 (2.2-21.5) 0.235
   adiponectin, μg/mL (males) 8.5 ± 1.1 (2.3-23.0) 7.6 ± 1.2 (2.2-21.5) 0.583
   adiponectin, μg/mL (females) 11.2 ± 1.5 (3.9-33.5) 9.8 ± 1.9 (4.2-11.5) 0.576
Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), pg/mL (all; n = 66) 3.37 ± 0.39 (0.33-13.75) 2.36 ± 0.45 (0.33-5.4) 0.286
   IL-6, pg/mL (males) 3.92 ± 0.59 (0.81-13.75) 2.16 ± 0.63 (0.33-5.4) 0.075
   IL-6, pg/mL (females) 2.71 ± 0.46 (0.33-5.59) 2.73 ± 0.60 (0.81-4.75) 0.582
Serum TBARS, nmol/mL (all, n = 66) 4.49 ± 0.15 (2.68-7.30) 4.68 ± 0.18 (3.01-6.56) 0.423
   TBARS, nmol/mL (males) 4.45 ± 0.20 (2.68-6.10) 4.44 ± 0.21 (3.01-6.56) 0.958
   TBARS, nmol/mL (females) 4.53 ± 0.24 (3.24-7.30) 5.23 ± 0.35 (4.00-6.20) 0.112
FSSG scores 2.5 ± 1.4 (0-24) 8.6 ± 1.8 (0-24) 0.015
   < 8/≥ 8 33/5 18/10 0.031
  1. mean ± SEM or n (range), NDR: non-diabetic retinopathy, SDR; simple diabetic retinopathy, PDR; proliferative diabetic retinopathy, SU; sulfonyl urea, BG; biguanide, αGI; alpha glucosidase inhibitor, CA; calcium channel antagonist, ACEI; angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB; angiotensin receptor blocker, β; β blockade, α; α blockade, TBARS; thiobarbituric acid reactive substance.
  2. Estimated glomerular filtration rate = 194 × creatinine-1.094 x age-0.287.
  3. Significant level was set at p value < 0.05 (bold type).