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Table 1 Main participant characteristics according to Tertiles of MSG intake

From: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake is associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural Thai population

Characteristics  Total (n = 349) MSG intake P
Tertile 1 (n = 116) Tertile 2 (n = 117) Tertile 3 (n = 116)
Median MSG intake (g/day) 3.6 (2.3–5.25) 1.9 (1.5–2.3) 3.6 (3.2–4.2) 6.0 (5.2–7.4)  
Women 217 (62.2%) 72 (62.1%) 72 (61.5%) 73 (62.9%) 0.976 2
Age (years) 46.0 (40.0–50.0) 44.0 (40.0–49.0) 1 46.0 (40.0–51.0) 47.0 (42.0–50.0) 0.044 2
Family history of diabetes 102 (29.2%) 36 (31.0%) 31 (26.5%) 35 (30.2%) 0.721 2
Smoking status      
 Never smoked 256 (73.3%) 84 (72.4%) 83 (71.0%) 89 (76.7%) 0.264 2
 Former 10 (2.9%) 3 (2.6%) 4 (3.4%) 3 (2.6%)  
 Current 83 (23.8%) 29 (25.0%) 30 (25.6%) 24 (20.7%)  
Physical activity/lifestyle      
 Sedentary 48 (13.7%) 14 (12.1%) 17 (14.5%) 17 (14.7%) 0.721 2
 Moderately active 70 (20.1%) 27 (23.3%) 19 (16.3%) 24 (20.7%)  
 Vigorously active 231 (66.2%) 75 (64.6%) 81 (69.2%) 75 (64.6%)  
Daily nutrient intake      
 Energy intake (Kcal) 2,032 (1,747–2,397) 2,051 (1,758–2,381) 1 2,029 (1,687–2,380) 2,017 (1,765–2,413) 0.905 2
 Carbohydrate (g) 333.8 (275.8–412.3) 342.2 (280.9–413.8) 1 328.1 (260.2–422.7) 341.2 (280.8–407.2) 0.569 2
 Fat (g) 33.1 (25.9–43.4) 34.1 (26.1–42.1) 1 32.8 (26.3–44.2) 31.7 (24.5–43.7) 0.739 2
 Total protein (g) 81.1 (68.8–96.9) 82.5 (70.7–97.6) 1 81.1 (67.6–93.0) 70.4 (67.5–95.3) 0.437 2
Metabolic parameters      
 HOMA-IR 2.3 (1.7–3.3) 2.1 (1.6–2.8) 1 2.3 (1.6–3.3) 2.4 (1.9–3.5) 0.028 2
  % HOMA-IR >3 96 (27.5%) 24 (20.7%) 33 (28.2%) 39 (33.6%) 0.028 3
 Insulin (ng/dL) 9.1 (7.0–13.2) 8.5 (6.6–12.0) 1 9.0 (6.8–13.0) 9.9 (7.5–14.1) 0.041 2
 Glucose (mg/dL) 97.0 (92.0–104.0) 97.0 (92.0–104.0) 1 98.0 (91.5–103.5) 99.0 (92.0–105.0) 0.647 2
  % glucose >100 mg/dL 142 (40.7%) 40 (30.7%) 48 (40.9%) 54 (43.0%) 0.062 3
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 137.7 (104.1–191.1) 139.1 (95.1–197.4) 1 139.0 (104.0–203.1) 134.2 (109.7–187.8) 0.729 2
  % Triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL 145 (41.5%) 48 (41.4%) 49 (41.9%) 48 (41.4%) 0.996 3
 HDL-C (mg/dL) 53.0 (44.0–63.0) 51.0 (41.0–62.8) 1 53.0 (45.0–65.0) 53.5 (45.0–64.0) 0.407 2
  % HDL-C <50 mg/dL F, <40 mg/dL M 112 (32.1%) 44 (37.9%) 34 (29.1%) 34 (29.3%) 0.160 3
 SBP (mmHg) 124.0 (116.0–136.0) 124.0 (116.0–133.8) 1 125.0 (116.0–135.5) 123.0 (115.3–136.8) 0.910 2
 DBP (mmHg) 79.0 (72.5–86.0) 78.0 (73.0–85.0) 1 80.0 (75.0–86.0) 80.0 (71.3–87.0) 0.503 2
  % SBP ≥ 130 and DBP ≥ 85 mmHg 77 (22.1%) 21 (18.1%) 27 (23.1%) 29 (25.0%) 0.206 3
 Waist circumference (cm) 79.0 (72.0–86.0) 78.5 (72.6–85.0) 1 77.0 (71.9–86.0) 81.0 (73.0–88.0) 0.207 2
  %WC >80 cm F, >90 cm M 124 (35.5%) 39 (33.6%) 35 (29.9%) 50 (43.1%) 0.132 3
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.7 (21.2–26.8) 23.5 (21.3–26.4) 1 23.1 (20.9–26.8) 24.6 (21.3–27.3) 0.308 2
  % BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 130 (37.2%) 36 (31.0%) 41 (35.0%) 53 (45.7%) 0.021 3
Metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria) 83 (23.8%) 20 (17.2%) 27 (23.1%) 36 (31.0%) 0.014 3
  1. 1 Continuous variables are expressed as median (interquartile range).
  2. 2P value comparing the characteristics of participants across tertiles of MSG intake using chi-square test for categorical variables and by Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables.
  3. 3P values comparing prevalence of each metabolic feature across tertiles of MSG intake using the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test for trend.
  4. HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, F female, M male, SBP systolic blood pressure DBP diastolic blood pressure, WC Waist circumference, BMI body mass index.