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Table 3 Dietary intakes of participants by categories of dietary total antioxidant capacity: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study¹

From: Dietary total antioxidant capacity and the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and its components after a 3-year follow-up in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

  ( n  = 1938)
 Q1   Q2   Q3   Q4  P1
Dietary phytochemical index      
Range < 842 842-958 959-1080 > 1080  
Median 764 906 1014 1161  
Energy intake (kcal/d) 2285 ± 29 2290 ± 29 2254 ± 29 2265 ± 29 0.80
Energy density(kcal/d) 107.9 ± 0.9 97.6 ± 0.9 91.3 ± 0.9 88.6 ± 0.9 <0.001
Carbohydrate (% of total energy) 58.1 ± 0.3 56.8 ± 0.3 57.2 ± 0.3 58.5 ± 0.3 0.21
Protein (% of total energy) 13.0 ± 0.1 13.7 ± 0.1 13.9 ± 0.1 13.9 ± 0.1 0.32
Fat (% of total energy) 30.5 ± 0.3 31.8 ± 0.3 31.7 ± 0.3 31.1 ± 0.3 0.09
Saturated fatty acid (% of total energy) 9.7 ± 0.2 10.8 ± 0.2 10.6 ± 0.2 10.6 ± 0.2 0.15
Mono-unsaturated fatty acid (% of total energy) 10.8 ± 0.1 11.0 ± 0.1 10.9 ± 0.1 10.5 ± 0.1 0.18
Poly-unsaturated fatty acid (% of total energy) 6.7 ± 0.1 6.7 ± 0.1 6.5 ± 0.1 6.2 ± 0.1 0.09
Vitamin A (mg/d) 422 ± 13 493 ± 13 547 ± 13 557 ± 13 <0.001
Total carotenoids (μg/d) 8677 ± 278 9731 ± 274 10725 ± 274 10874 ± 277 <0.001
Vitamin E (mg/d) 11.3 ± 0.2 11.6 ± 0.2 11.6 ± 0.2 12.2 ± 0.2 0.001
Vitamin C (mg/d) 109 ± 3.5 133 ± 3.5 158 ± 3.5 185 ± 3.5 <0.001
Zinc (mg/d) 10.6 ± 0.1 11.3 ± 0.1 11.7 ± 0.1 11.7 ± 0.1 <0.001
Selenium (μg/d) 111 ± 1.4 112 ± 1.4 112 ± 1.4 108 ± 1.4 0.10
Whole grains (g/d) 65.0 ± 4.3 87.1 ± 4.2 106.3 ± 4.2 116.1 ± 4.3 <0.001
Fruits (g/d) 223 ± 10 303 ± 10 405 ± 10 566 ± 10 <0.001
Vegetables (g/d) 275 ± 8 300 ± 8 309 ± 8 298 ± 8 0.028
Legumes (g/d) 12.5 ± 1.0 16.7 ± 0.9 18.4 ± 0.9 21.7 ± 1.0 <0.001
dairy (g/d) 329 ± 11 447 ± 11 516 ± 11 596 ± 11 <0.001
Nuts (g/d) 5.1 ± 0.4 5.9 ± 0.4 7.7 ± 0.4 9.9 ± 0.4 <0.001
  1. 1 Data are age-and energy adjusted mean ± SEM.
  2. 2P values compared the dietary intakes of participants across quartiles of dietary phytochemical index using linear regression models with adjustment of sex, age and energy intakes.