Effects of ENF on hepatic lipids. (A) Tissue samples were obtained at ZT 12 from C57B6 mice after 4 days under different dietary conditions. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels were enzymatically determined, as described in the Materials and Methods section. (B) The hepatic DNL fluxes before treatment (day 0) and after 4 days under different dietary conditions were determined using deuterated water labeling and the following mass isotopomer distribution analysis. The relative flux of fatty acid synthase (FAS) was estimated from the fraction of newly synthesized palmitate. Elongase and desaturase were assessed as described in the Materials and Methods section. All of the values are expressed as the mean +/- SEM (n = 6). *p < 0.05 for the treatment groups compared with the pre-condition (day 0). #P < 0.05 for the ENF compared with the FF-control. (C) Circadian variation in hepatic triglycerides (TG) and cholesterols and (D) plasma triglycerides (TG) under isocaloric conditions. Dark periods are indicated by the gray area. All of the values are expressed as the mean +/- SEM (n = 6 per timepoint). *p < 0.05 for ENF-CR groups compared with the IC-control.