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Table 4 Mean ratings of gastrointestinal side effects for each dietary intervention (Control, Flax drink or Flax bread) recorded at the end of each period (n = 17 for Control and Flax bread; n = 16 for Flax drink).

From: Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

Number of study subjects reporting side effects
  Sum Heartburn Reflux Bloating Nausea Pain Rumbling Gas Diarrhea Constipation
Control 32 3 2 6 4 1 3 6 3 4
Flax drink 34 3 2 3 3 4 6 6 3 4
Flax bread 22 4 3 1 1 1 1 5 2 4
Mean degree of symptom (1 = nothing; 5 = very severe)
  Sum Heartburn Reflux Bloating Nausea Pain Rumbling Gas Diarrhea Constipation
Control 13.1 1.7 1.3 1.8 1.5 1.1 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.5
Flax drink 12.2 1.4 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.4 1.2
Flax bread 12.0 1.7 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.4