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Table 2 Studies suiting RDA inclusion criteria and included in protein spread theory analysis

From: Dietary protein in weight management: a review proposing protein spread and change theories

Benefit No > benefit than control
Study % Spread (g/kg/day) Study % Spread (g/kg/day)
Abete, 2009[12] 66.7 Ballesteros-Pomar, 2009[45] 34.9
Aldrich, 2011[13] 47.4 Brinkworth, 2004[46] 19.6
Baer, 2011[14] 73.5 Delbridge, 2009[47] 17.3
Claessens, 2009[15] 121.3 De Souza, 2012[48] 11.4
Clifton, 2008[16] 45.9 Gilbert, 2011[49] 19
Demling, 2000[17] 72.3 Hinton, 2010[50] 24.4
Due, 2004[18] 75.6 Johnston, 2004[51] 98.8
Evans, 2012[19] 70.3 Larsen, 2011[52] 43
Farnsworth, 2003[20] 72.5 Luscombe, 2002[53] 71.6
Flechtner-Mors[21] 59.7 Luscombe, 2003[54] 69.9
Frestedt, 2008[22] 32.2 Magrans-Courtney, 2011[55] 20.2
Hursel, 2009[23] 52.6 Rizkalla, 2012[56] 42.9
Josse, 2011[24] 73.6 Sacks, 2009[57] 13.9
Larsen, 2010[25] 24.4 Sargrad, 2005[58] 31.4
Lasker, 2008[26] 77.5 Sukumar, 2011[59] 34.2
Layman, 2003[27] 86.1 Wycherley, 2010[60] 67.7
Layman, 2005[28] 81.8   
Layman, 2009[29] 70.3   
Lejeune, 2005[30] 24.3   
Leidy, 2007[31] 72   
Lockwood, 2008[32] 51.6   
Mahon, 2007[33] 39.7   
McAuley, 2005[34] 33.3   
McMillan-Price[35] 47.9   
Meckling, 2007[36] 62.5   
Mojtahedi, 2011[11] 32.1   
Morenga, 2010[37] 27.8   
Navas-Carretero, 2011[38] 27.4   
Nickols-Richardson, 2005[39] 40.5   
Noakes, 2005[40] 75.4   
Papakonstantinou[41], 2010 92.4   
Parker, 2002[42] 73.1   
Skov, 1999[2] 68.5   
Te Morenga, 2011[43] 39   
Westerterp-Plantenga, 2004[44] 32.6   
Average% Spread (g/kg/day): 58.4 Average% Spread (g/kg/day): 38.8
Average% Spread (g/kg/day): RDA only 52 Average% Spread (g/kg/day): RDA only 30.3
Average% Spread (g/kg/day): Urinary Biomarker only 62.7 Average% Spread (g/kg/day): Urinary Biomarker only 41.6
  1. Bold = studies meeting RDA inclusion criteria; Italics = studies with urinary biomarker verification of protein intakes.
  2. Benefit = higher protein group in these studies experienced greater anthropometric benefits than did control group during the intervention; No > benefit than control = higher protein group in these studies experienced anthropometric benefits equivalent to the control group during the intervention.