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Table 3 Protein change theory studies showing anthropometric benefits of increased protein versus control

From: Dietary protein in weight management: a review proposing protein spread and change theories

Study LP base intake (g/kg/day) LP study intake (g/kg/day) HP base intake (g/kg/day) HP study intake (g/kg/day) LP Change (%) HP Change (%)
Demling, 2000[17] 0.76 0.83 0.72 1.43 9.5 98.1
Evans, 2012[19] 0.88 0.74 1.03 1.26 −15.9 22.3
Flechtner-Mors[21] 0.66 0.62 0.73 0.99 −6.1 35.6
Frestedt, 2008[22] 0.76 0.59 0.74 0.78 −22.4 5.4
Josse, 2011[24] 0.78 0.84 0.8 1.33 7.7 66.3
Lasker, 2008[26] 0.93 0.71 0.98 1.26 −23.7 28.6
Layman, 2005[28] 0.93 0.66 0.99 1.2 −29.03 21.2
Lockwood, 2008[32] 1 0.91 1.02 1.38 −9 35.3
Mahon, 2007[33] 0.99 0.63 0.94 0.88 −36.4 −6.4
McMillan-Price[35] 1.15 0.73 1.01 1.08 −36.5 6.9
Meckling, 2007[36] 0.89 0.72 0.83 1.17 −19.1 41
Morenga, 2010[37] 1.02 0.97 0.99 1.24 −4.9 25.3
Mojtahedi, 2011[11] 0.98 0.87 0.91 1.21 −11.2 33
Navas-Carretero, 2011[38]1 X-Over X-Over 0.95 1.21 X-Over 27.4
Nickols-Richardson, 2005[39] 1.12 0.79 0.89 1.11 −29.5 24.7
Papakonstantinou[41], 2010 1.06 0.66 1.08 1.27 −37.7 17.6
Te Morenga, 2011[43] 0.93 0.82 0.9 1.14 −11.8 26.7
Average      −16.6 28.6
Average: RDA only      −9.8 36.9
Average: Urinary Biomarker only      −21 18.9
  1. Bold = studies meeting RDA inclusion criteria; Italics = studies with urinary biomarker verification of protein intakes.
  2. 1 X-Over – crossover design whereby the same participants increased their protein intake from a previous controlled intake period.
  3. Only weight loss studies reporting baseline protein intake. The higher protein groups in all of these studies experienced greater anthropometric benefits than the respective control groups during the intervention.