Effects of SFN on aortic expression of Nrf2 downstream genes. Aortic expression of Nrf2 down-stream genes NQO1 (A), HO-1 (B), and SOD-1 (C) at mRNA levels was measured by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemical staining was used to measure the expression of SOD-1 at protein levels in aortic tunica media (D) with semi-quantitative analysis (Staining for 3 month & 6 month sections were not performed at same time so that control staining intensity was different between two time-points). Data were presented as means ± SD (n = 6).*, p < 0.05 vs. control; #, p < 0.05 vs. DM. Bar = 50 μM.