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Table 1 Oxidation of Dietary Fructose, Glucose, and Other Sugars in Tracer Studies (1)

From: Fructose metabolism in humans – what isotopic tracer studies tell us

Subjects Exercise Hours Sugar dosage (g) Tracer Oxidation Reference
9 M No 6 0.9 fru/kg bw 13C-fru(L1) 42.9% [70](2)
9 F No 6 0.9 fru/kg bw 13C-fru 43%  
8 M + 6 F No 6 0.75 glu/kg bw 13C-glu(L1) 24.5% [48]
8 M + 6 F No 6 0.75 fru/kg bw 13C-fru(L1) 30.5%  
M + 3 F No 6 0.5 fru/kg bw 13C-fru(L2) 56% [49](2)
3 M + 3 F No 6 1.0 fru/kg bw 13C-fru 59%  
4 M + 4 F No 3 0.9 fru/kg bw 13C-fru(L3) 38.5% [52](2)
7 obese F No 3 0.9 fru/kg bw 13C-fru 34.9%  
8 type-2 (4 M) No 3 0.9 fru/kg bw 13C-fru 31.3%  
10 M yes 2 0.6 malt/min 13C-glu(L4) 81.7% (0.49 g/min) [82]
10 M yes 2 0.3 fru + 0.6 malt/min 13C-fru(L4) 62.0% (0.18 g/min)  
10 M yes 2 0.5 fru + 0.6 malt/min 13C-fru 54.0% (0.27 g/min)  
10 M yes 2 0.7 fru + 0.6 malt/min 13C-fru 52.0% (0.36 g/min)  
6 M Yes 2 100 galactose 13C-galactose(L1) 23.7% [60]
6 M Yes 2 100 fru 13C-fru(L1) 38.8%  
6 M Yes 2 100 glu 13C-glu(L1) 40.5%  
6 M yes 2 100 fru 13C-fru(L1) 43.8% [47]
6 M yes 2 100 glu 13C-glu(L1) 48.1%  
6 M yes 2 100 fru + 120 sucr 13C-fru 42.0% (42 g)  
6 M yes 2 100 glu + 120 sucr 13C-glu 50.2% (50.2 g)  
18 M yes 2 1.33 fru/kg bw 13C-fru(L1) 36.7% (35.7 g) [62]
18 M yes 2 1.33 glu/kg bw 13C-glu(L1) 57.2% (56.1 g)  
6 M yes 2 100 fru 13C-fru(L1) 45.8% [61](2,3)
6 M yes 2 100 glu 13C-glu(L1) 58.3%  
6 M yes 2 50 fru + 50 glu 13C-fru + 13C-glu 73.6%  
6 M yes 3 150 fru 13C-fru(L2) 38.0% [50]
6 M yes 3 150 glu 13C-glu(L2) 54.0%  
5 M yes 2 1.33 fru/kg bw 13C-fru(L4) 51.0% (49 g) [65]
5 M yes 2 1.33 glu/kg bw 13C-glu(L4) 60.4% (58 g)  
5 M3 yes 2 1.33 fru/kg bw 13C-fru 37.5% (36 g)  
5 M3 yes 2 1.33 glu/kg bw 13C-glu 58.3% (56 g)  
6 M yes 2 1.33 fru/kg bw 13C-fru(L4) 54.0% (53 g) [64](3)
6 M yes 2 1.33 glu/kg bw 13C-glu(L4) 72.0% (70 g)  
6 M yes 2 100 fru 13C-fru(L4) 54% [55]
6 M yes 2 100 glu 13C-glu(L4) 67%  
7 M yes 3 140 fru 13C-fru(L4) 56% [63](3)
7 M yes 3 140 glu 13C-glu(L4) 75%  
10 M yes 2 1.0 fru/kg bw 13C-fru(L2) 43.0% (30 g) [56]
10 M yes 2 1.0 glu/kg bw 13C-glu(L2) 37.1% (26 g)  
8 M yes 2 0.5 fru + 1.0 glu/min 13C-fru + 13C-glu(L2) 72.7% (1.09 g/min) [68](3,4)
8 M yes 2 1.5 glu/min 13C-glu 50.7% (0.76 g/min)  
8 M yes 2 1.2 sucr/min 13C-sucr(L1) 78.3% (0.94 g/min) [67](4)
8 M yes 2 1.2 glu/min 14C-glu(L1) 58.3% (0.70 g/min)  
8 M yes 2 0.6 sucr + 0.6 glu/min 13C-sucr + 14C-glu 70.8% (0.85 g/min)  
9 M yes 2.5 1.8 glu/min 13C-glu(L2) 53.3% (0.96 g/min) [69](4)
9 M yes 2.5 0.6 sucr + 1.2 glu/min 13C-sucr + 13C-glu(L2) 62.2% (1.12 g/min)  
9 M yes 2.5 0.6 malt + 1.2 glu/min 13C-malt + 13C-glu(L2) 52.2% (0.94 g/min)  
8 M yes 2 1.8 glu /min 14C-glu(L1) 38.7% (0.75 g/min) [66](4)
8 M yes 2 0.6 fru + 1.2 glu/min 13C-fru + 14C-glu(L1) 64.4% (1.16 g/min)  
  1. (1): hours = study monitoring hours, fru = fructose, glu = glucose, sucr = sucrose, malt = maltose; bw = body weight; M = male, F = female; type-2 = type-2 diabetes. In the reference column, (2) = with glucose infusion. (3) = non-fasting subjects. (4) = oxidation data of the 2nd hour or the last 1.5 hours. In the column of “Tracer”, superscripted L1 = labeled uniformly, L2 = naturally enriched, L3 = labeled at position 1, and L4 = 13C position not indicated.