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Table 2 Conversion from Fructose to Glucose, Tracer Studies in Adults (1)

From: Fructose metabolism in humans – what isotopic tracer studies tell us

Subjects Exercise Hours Fru dosages Tracer Blood glu (mmol/L) Fru to glu conversion Reference
9 M No 6 3x0.3 g/kg bw 13C-fru(L1) 5.94%(2) 37.4%  
9 F No 6 3x0.3 g/kg bw 13C-fru 4.87%(2) 28.9% [70]
4 M + 4 F No 3 3x0.3 g/kg bw 13C-fru(L3) 5.2 36.4%(3)  
7 obese F No 3 3x0.3 g/kg bw 13C-fru 5.3 29.5%(3)  
8 type-2 (4 M) No 3 3x0.3 g/kg bw 13C-fru 7.7 30.2%(3) [52]
3 M + 3 F No 6 0.5 g/kg bw 13C-fru(L2) 4.56 54.0%  
  No 6 1.0 g/kg bw 13C-fru 4.66 50.7% [49]
3 M + 3 F No 0-3 3 mg/kg/min4 13C-fru(L1) NA 28.0%(4)  
  No 4-6 6 mg/kg/min4 13C-fru NA 22.0%(4) [71]
7 M Yes 2 96 g fru + 144 g glu 13C-fru(L1) 6.2 29%(5) [51]
6 M Yes 3 6x25 g 13C-fru(L2) NA 55-60%(6) [50]
  1. For superscript numbers: (1), except Jandrain’s study[50], the subjects in the other studies were under glucose infusion; Hours = study monitoring hours, fru = fructose, glu = glucose; bw = body weight; M = male, F = female; type-2 = type-2 diabetes; NA = not available. (2), increases from baseline. (3), data were calculated based on reported parameters. (4), fructose administrated by infusion. (5), under steady state of carbohydrate flux. (6), percent of circulating glucose in the 2nd half of study hours. In the column of “Tracer”, superscripted L1 = labeled uniformly, L2 = naturally enriched, and L3 = labeled at position 1.