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Table 1 Sample characteristics stratified for sex (mean values or percentages and 95% CI )*

From: Associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status among adolescents in Germany

  All participants N=5,198 Boys N=2,646 Girls N=2,552
Age 15.1 15.1 (15.0-15.1) 15.1 (15.0-15.1)
Energy intake 2,871 3,150 (3,089-3,211) 2,582 (2,529-2,634)
Index scores
HFD 0.51 0.49 (0.48-.049) 0.54 (0.53-0.54)
HuSKY 53.1 51.8 (51.4-52.2) 54.5 (54.1-54.9)
IFI 9.03 8.58 (8.49-8.66) 9.50 (9.41-9.58)
Fruit/vegetable intake 3.30 3.02 (2.90-3.11) 3.59 (3.48-3.72)
Obesity status (%)$ 17.2 17.2 (15.8-18.7) 17.2 (15.8-18.7)
Overweight 9.2 9.4 (8.4-10.6) 9.0 (7.9-10.1)
Obese 8.0 7.8 (6.8-8.9) 8.2 (7.2-9.3)
Alcohol consumption (%) 22.9 29.0 (27.3-30.7) 16.5 (15.1-18.0)
Smoking (%) 22.5 22.3 (20.7-23.9) 22.7 (20.8-23.9)
Physical activity (%)
Every day 21.6 27.1 (25.5-28.9) 15.8 (14.4-17.2)
3-5times/week 32.2 37.9 (36.1-39.8) 26.2 (24.5-27.9)
1-2times/week 30.6 25.2 (23.6-26.9) 36.2 (34.4-38.1)
1-2times/day 5.5 3.8 (3.1-6.4) 7.3 (6.4-8.4)
Never 10.1 5.9 (5.0-6.9) 14.5 (19.1-22.2)
SES (%)$$
Low 25.8 25.9 (24.3-27.6) 25.7 (24.0-27.4)
Medium 48.1 47.6 (45.7-49.5) 48.7 (46.8-50.6)
High 26.0 26.5 (24.8-28.2) 25.6 (24.0-27.4)
Season (%)
Spring 21.9 22.4 (20.8-24.0) 21.4 (19.9-23.1)
Summer 21.8 21.8 (20.3-23.4) 21.8 (20.2-23.4)
Autumn 30.3 30.2 (28.5-32.0) 30.3 (28.5-32.1)
Winter 26.0 25.6 (24.0-27.3) 26.5 (24.8-28.2)
  1. Abbreviation: CI (Confidence interval), HFD (Healthy Food Diversity Index), HuSKY (Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth), IFI (Indicator Food Index), SES (Socio-economic status).
  2. *Non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals were considered statistical significant.
  3. $calculated according to Kromeyer-Hauschild et al. [35].
  4. $$calculated according to Winkler and Stolzenberg [29].