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Table 3 Biomarkers # of dietary exposure by quintiles of dietary indices for boys (mean and 95% CI )*

From: Associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status among adolescents in Germany

  Index 1. Quintile 3. Quintile 5. Quintile ß p
Ferritin μg/l HFD 53.3 52.2 58.7 0.808 .109
N=2,630 49.9-56.7 48.6-55.7 52.7-64.8   
HuSKY 53.2 53.4 59.4 0.806 .130
49.3-57.2 49.7-57.2 52.8-66.0   
IFI 53.2 52.6 55.8 0.646 .136
49.2-57.2 48.6-56.6 50.9-60.7   
Fruit/vegetable intake 54.3 53.3 53.3 −0.227 .808
50.6-58.0 49.6-57.0 47.2-59.5   
HbA1c % HFD 4.93 4.89 4.89 −0.010 .106
N=2,592 4.89-4.97 4.84-4.93 4.83-4.94   
HuSKY 4.91 4.92 4.88 −0.002 .574
4.86-4.96 4.87-4.96 4.82-4.94   
IFI 4.91 4.92 4.86 −0.012 .049
4.86-4.95 4.87-4.98 4.78-4.93   
Fruit/vegetable intake 4.91 4.91 4.89 0.003 .677
4.87-4.96 4.86-4.96 4.82-4.95   
Folate (First period) ng/ml HFD 462.3 481.2 507.1 10.260 .009
436.3-488.2 456.6-505.8 475.2-539.0   
N=1,604
HuSKY 460.7 457.0 493.2 6.801 .030
434.6-486.8 429.0-484.9 463.1-523.3   
IFI 451.1 465.0 501.0 27.671 .006
429.4-472.7 438.3-491.6 464.3-537.8   
Fruit/vegetable intake 446.3 464.0 496.0 10.057 .005
422.5-470.0 437.0-491.0 466.9-525.1   
Folate (Second period) ng/ml HFD 625.6 677.2 630.4 0.860 .949
N=953 592.7-658.5 646.9-707.5 586.5-674.3   
HuSKY 638.7 643.5 656.8 3.095 .502
605.4-672.0 615.1-671.9 619.7-693.9   
IFI 635.6 658.9 639.6 3.692 .763
603.4-667.7 625.4-692.3 598.1-681.1   
Fruit/vegetable intake 638.4 672.2 663.4 6.901 .185
608.9-667.8 641.8-702.6 625.4-701.4   
Vitamin B12 ng/l HFD 471.6 476.9 477.6 1.464 .766
N=2,609 451.3-491.8 454.2-499.7 450.1-505.0   
HuSKY 487.0 488.7 484.3 −3.660 .742
459.0-514.9 462.8-514.7 451.4-517.2   
IFI 474.2 499.1 477.7 6.227 .259
451.4-497.0 478.0-520.2 446.4-509.0   
Fruit/vegetable intake 486.3 473.8 474.2 −1.992 .569
463.0-509.5 453.3-494.4 446.4-502.0   
  1. Abbreviation: CI (Confidence interval), HbA1c (Glycohaemoglobin), HFD (Healthy Food Diversity Index), HuSKY (Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth), IFI (Indicator Food Index).
  2. *P values less than 0.05 (bold) were considered statistically significant.
  3. #adjusted for age, energy intake, BMI, alcohol consumption, season, physical activity, smoking status, and family socio-economic index.