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Table 4 Biomarkers # of cardiovascular status by quintiles of dietary indices for girls (mean and 95% CI )*

From: Associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status among adolescents in Germany

  Index 1. Quintile 3. Quintile 5. Quintile ß p
Homocysteine μmol/l HFD 8.09 7.88 7.69 −0.074 .038
N=2,522 7.80-8.39 7.60-8.16 7.49-7.89   
HuSKY 8.37 7.88 7.83 −0.108 .007
8.03-8.71 7.62-8.14 7.58-8.09   
IFI 8.11 8.01 7.71 −0.098 .027
7.83-8.39 7.74-8.28 7.42-7.99   
Fruit/vegetable intake 8.13 7.84 7.79 −0.058 .165
7.82-8.45 7.59-8.08 7.50-8.08   
Uric acid mg/dl HFD 4.28 4.26 4.34 0.015 .336
N=2,537 4.18-4.38 4.15-4.37 4.25-4.43   
HuSKY 4.39 4.26 4.30 −0.011 .331
4.29-4.50 4.15-4.37 4.21-4.40   
IFI 4.25 4.31 4.37 0.027 .099
4.14-4.35 4.20-4.43 4.25-4.48   
Fruit/vegetable intake 4.27 4.33 4.38 0.024 .182
4.16-4.38 4.22-4.43 4.27-4.50   
CRP μg/dl HFD 196.1 151.8 162.5 −6.073 .175
N=2,438 148.7-243.5 115.7-187.9 123.7-201.4   
HuSKY 193.9 166.5 154.9 −8.215 .051
150.4-237.4 112.5-220.5 115.9-194.0   
IFI 205.8 164.6 155.5 −14.005 .007
148.1-263.6 121.3-207.9 112.7-198.4   
Fruit/vegetable intake 178.4 158.2 154.8 −2.283 .586
137.1-219.7 119.4-197.0 116.5-193.2   
Total cholesterol μg/dl HFD 158.9 160.6 161.6 0.634 .190
N=2,104 155.1-162.7 156.9-164.2 157.9-165.3   
HuSKY 160.6 162.0 160.5 −0.033 .930
156.5-164.7 158.2-165.8 156.6-164.3   
IFI 161.6 162.3 161.4 0.033 .790
157.8-165.4 158.4-166.2 157.4-165.4   
Fruit/vegetable intake 159.9 160.1 158.8 0.099 .869
155.8-163.9 155.5-164.6 154.8-162.8   
HDL-C μg/dl HFD 58.2 57.5 57.3 −0.359 .108
N=2,104 56.5-60.0 56.0-59.0 55.8-58.8   
HuSKY 58.4 58.1 56.7 −0.278 .205
56.8-60.0 56.5-59.7 55.3-58.1   
IFI 58.2 57.3 57.5 −0.184 .418
56.3-60.1 55.7-58.8 56.2-58.9   
Fruit/vegetable intake 58.3 57.0 56.9 −0.202 .291
56.6-60.1 55.4-58.6 55.5-58.2   
Systolic BP mmHg HFD 111.8 112.0 112.9 0.223 .205
N=2,100 110.2-113.3 110.7-113.3 111.7-114.1   
HuSKY 111.8 112.7 112.6 0.057 .287
110.4-113.1 111.5-113.9 111.4-113.9   
IFI 112.2 111.2 113.4 0.394 .052
110.8-113.6 109.9-112.4 112.0-114.8   
Fruit/vegetable intake 111.6 113.3 112.1 0.099 .485
110.2-113.0 111.8-114.7 110.8-113.4   
Diastolic BP mmHg HFD 66.5 67.6 67.7 0.128 .235
N=2,100
65.7-67.4 66.7-68.4 66.8-68.6   
HuSKY 67.5 67.6 67.8 0.096 .564
66.6-68.3 66.7-68.4 66.9-68.8   
IFI 67.2 66.5 68.3 0.326 .018
66.3-68.0 65.5-67.5 67.3-69.3   
Fruit/vegetable intake 66.7 67.7 67.8 0.255 .046
65.8-67.5 66.7-68.8 66.8-68.8   
  1. Abbreviation: BP (Blood pressure), CI (Confidence interval), CRP (C - reactive protein), HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), HFD (Healthy Food Diversity Index), HuSKY (Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth), IFI (Indicator Food Index).
  2. *P values less than 0.05 (bold) were considered statistically significant.
  3. #adjusted for age, energy intake, BMI, alcohol consumption, season, physical activity, smoking status, and family socio-economic index.