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Table 2 Putative effects of high glycemic load diets and salient CHD pathogenetic pathways

From: How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?

Lifestyle Pathways, and pathway numbers corresponding to those in Figure 2 Refs.
High- GL diets a. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-55-↑ hyperglycaemia a. [13,57,103]
b. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-19-↓ adiponectin-38-↑ TNFα-56-12-↑ LDL-33-↑ oxLDL-51-↑ hypercholesterolaemia b. [13,57,103]
c. 2-↑17-14-↑blood glucose-54-↑ PI3K:MAPK-69-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89-↑ hypertension-100-↑ROS-85-↑ inflammatory state c. [13,57,95,105]
d. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-↑ PI3K:MAPK-69-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-88-50-↑ TNFα-41-↑ inflammatory state d. [101]
e. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-↑ PI3K:MAPK-69-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89-↑ SMC proliferation e. [62]
f. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-↑ PI3K:MAPK-69-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89-↓ IGF1-84-↑ SMC proliferation f. [121-123]
g. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-↑ PI3K:MAPK-69-↑ insulin resistance-70-↑ angiotensin II-89-↑ VCAM1/MCP1-73-↑ hypercoagulability g. [60]
h. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-↑ PI3K:MAPK-69-↑ insulin resistance-72-↑ platelet factors-73-↑ hypercoagulability h. [40,48]
i. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-19-↓ adiponectin-38-↑ TNFα-41-↑ P. gingivalis-43-↑ periodontitis-64-↑ platelet factors-73-↑ hypercoagulability i. [27,40,48,66]
j. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-19-↓ adiponectin-39-↑ insulin resistance j. [101]
k. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-19-↓ adiponectin-39-↑ SMC proliferation k. [94]
l. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-↑ PI3K:MAPK-69-↑ insulin resistance-72-↑ hyperglycaemia l. [88,89]
m. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-55-↑ SMC proliferation m. [103]
n. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-53-↑ NO depletion-57-↑ SMC proliferation n. [28,89,105,111]
o. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-53-↑ NO depletion-57-↓ vasodilation o. [28,97,103,105]
p. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-60-↑insulin resistance-72-↓ vasodilation p. [101,103]
q. 2-↑17-14-↑ blood glucose-54-↑angiotensin II-89-↑hypertension-100-↑ROS-85-↑inflammatory state q. [28,93,103]
r. 2-↑15-34-12-↑ LDL-33-↑ oxLDL-51- ↑ hypercholesterolaemia r. [14]
s. 2-↑15-34-13-↑ TMAO/NLRP3-52-macrophage-78-foam cell-↑ SMC proliferation s. [15-17]
t. 2-↑15-34-13-↑ TMAO/NLRP3-52-macrophage-51-↑ hypercholesterolaemia t. [15-17]
u. 2-↑15-34-13-↑ TMAO/NLRP3-52-macrophage-77-↑ inflammatory state u. [15-17]
  1. ↑denotes upregulation/increase, ↓denotes downregulation/decrease, x-y-z indicates pathway connecting x to y to z. HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; oxLDL, oxidised LDL; FFA, free fatty acids; TNFα, tumour necrosis factor-α; IL6, interleukin-6; NO, nitric oxide; ROS, reactive oxygen species; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea; SMC, smooth muscle cell; P. gingivalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase; PI3K:MAPK, ratio of PI3K to MAPK; IGF 1, insulin-like growth factor-1; VCAM 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; MCP 1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.