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Table 3 Salient serological and functional biomarkers of CHD, and prospective ones

From: How do high glycemic load diets influence coronary heart disease?

Biomarker (class and salient examples) Prediction of CHD relative risk (95% CI) Size of studies (N= number of trials, n= number of patients) Ref.
Lipid-related markers:
  Triglycerides 0.99 (0.94-1.05) (N = 68, n = 302 430) [146]
  LDL 1.25 (1.18-1.33) (N = 15, n = 233 455) [147]
  HDL 0.78 (0.74-0.82) (N = 68, n = 302 430) [146]
  ApoB 1.43 (1.35-1.51) (N = 15, n = 233 455) [147]
  Leptin 1.04 (0.92-1.17) (n = 1 832) [148]
Inflammation markers:
  hsCRP 1.20 (1.18-1.22) (N = 38, n = 166 596) [149]
  IL-6 1.25 (1.19-1.32) (N = 25, n = 42 123) [150]
  TNF-α 1.17 (1.09-1.25) (N = 7, n = 6 107) [150]
  GDF-15 1.40 (1.10-1.80) (n = 1 740) [151]
  OPG 1.41 (1.33-1.57) (n = 5 863) [152]
Marker of oxidative stress:
  MPO 1.17 (1.06-1.30) (n = 2 861) [153]
Marker of vascular function and neurohormonal activity:
  BNP 1.42 (1.24-1.63) (N = 40, n = 87 474) [154]
  Homocysteine 1.15 (1.09-1.22) (N = 20, n = 22 652) [155,156]
Coagulation marker:
  Fibrinogen 1.15 (1.13-1.17) (N = 40, n = 185 892) [149]
Necrosis marker:
  Troponins 1.15 (1.04-1.27) (n = 3 265) [157]
Renal function marker:
  Urinary ACR 1.57 (1.26-1.95) (n = 626) [158]
Metabolic markers:
  HbA1c 1.42 (1.16-1.74) (N = 2, n = 2 442) [159]
  IGF-1 0.76 (0.56-1.04) (n = 3 967) [160]
  Adiponectin 0.97 (0.86-1.09) (N = 14, n =21 272) [161]
  Cortisol 1.10 (0.97-1.25) (n = 2 512) [162,163]
  BDNF ? N/A [71,73,74]
  Insulin resistance (HOMA) 1.46 (1.26-1.69) (N = 17, n = 51 161) [164]
  1. Only recent and/or highly cited papers have been cited here. n denotes number of participants; N, number of trials; ?, a possible, though not currently quantified effect on CHD risk; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; ACR, albumin–to-creatinine ratio; GDF-15, growth-differentiation factor-15; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin-6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α; ApoB, apolipoprotein-B; IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor-1; MPO, myeloperoxidase; RANKL or OPG, osteoprotegerin; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; HOMA, homeostatic model assessment.