β-amyloid staining in the hippocampus. At the end of experimental period, the brain section (30 μm) was stained for β-amyloid using immunohistochemical techniques. The β-amyloid positive cells were counted in the hippocampus area. The β-amyloid (25–35) infused diabetic rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (AD-CON), 1% less pungent red pepper (AD-LSP), moderate pungent red pepper (AD-MSP) or severe pungent red pepper (AD-SSP) for 28 days. The β-amyloid (35–25) infused rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (Non-AD-CON). Each bar represents Means ± SD (n = 5). abcdDifferent letters on the bars indicate significant differences at P < 0.05.