Glucose infusion rates and hepatic glucose output during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed in conscious, free moving, and overnight fasted rats to determine whole body insulin resistance. Glucose infusion rates and glucose uptake at a clamped steady-state (A) and hepatic glucose output at baseline and hyperinsulinemic state about 1100 pM of serum insulin (B) were presented. The β-amyloid (25–35) infused diabetic rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (AD-CON), 1% less pungent red pepper (AD-LSP), moderate pungent red pepper (AD-MSP) or severe pungent red pepper (AD-SSP) for 28 days. The β-amyloid (35–25) infused rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (Non-AD-CON). Each bar represents Means ± SD (n = 10). abcDifferent letters on the bars indicate significant differences at P < 0.05.