Insulin secretion during a hyperglycemic clamp. Hyperglycemic clamp was conducted in conscious, free moving, and overnight fasted rats to measure glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. As exogenous glucose was infused into jugular vein to make approximately 5.5 mM above overnight fasted serum glucose levels, serum insulin levels were measured at 0, 2, 5, 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mins. The β-amyloid (25–35) infused diabetic rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (AD-CON), 1% less pungent red pepper (AD-LSP), moderate pungent red pepper (AD-MSP) or severe pungent red pepper (AD-SSP) for 28 days. The β-amyloid (35–25) infused rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (Non-AD-CON). Each dot represents Means ± SD (n = 10). *Significantly different among the groups at P < 0.05.