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Table 1 Body weight visceral fat contents and overnight-fasted serum glucose and insulin levels at the end of experimental periods

From: Red peppers with moderate and severe pungency prevent the memory deficit and hepatic insulin resistance in diabetic rats with Alzheimer’s disease

  AD-CON (n = 20) AD-LSP (n = 20) AD-MSP (n = 20) AD-SSP (n = 20) Non-AD-CON (n = 20)
Body weight (g) 320 ± 33b 317 ± 29b 333 ± 34ab 322 ± 30b 348 ± 31a
Epididymal fat pads/body weight (g/kg bw) 9.0 ± 1.2a 7.1 ± 0.9b 7.4 ± 1.0b 7.2 ± 0.9b 7.5 ± 1.0b
Retroperitoneal fat/body weight (g/kg bw) 15.5 ± 2.0a 12.4 ± 1.9b 13.2 ± 1.9b 12.5 ± 1.8b 12.9 ± 1.8b
Energy intake (kcal/day) 105 ± 17 114 ± 15 119 ± 21 118 ± 19 113 ± 14
Total active time (m/h) 4.4 ± 0.7b 5.2 ± 0.8ab 5.7 ± 0.8a 5.4 ± 0.6a 5.5 ± 0.6a
Energy expenditure (kcal/kg0.75/day) 119 ± 15b 126 ± 15ab 129 ± 16ab 133 ± 16a 111 ± 14b
Respiratory quotient 0.86 ± 0.11 0.84 ± 0.10 0.81 ± 0.10 0.80 ± 0.09 0.83 ± 0.10
VO2 (mL/kg0.75/min) 17.0 ± 2.1b 17.9 ± 2.2ab 18.4 ± 2.2ab 19.0 ± 2.1a 15.9 ± 2.0b
Carbohydrate oxidation (mg/kg0.75/min) 6.6 ± 0.9a 6.1 ± 0.7ab 4.8 ± 0.6b 5.0 ± 0.6b 4.8 ± 0.6b
Fat oxidation (mg/kg0.75/min) 6.1 ± 0.8c 7.3 ± 0.9b 8.9 ± 1.1a 9.2 ± 1.1a 7.1 ± 0.9b
  1. Values are mean ± SD. The β-amyloid (25–35) infused diabetic rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (AD-CON), 1% less pungent red pepper (AD-LSP), moderately pungent red pepper (AD-MSP) or severely pungent red pepper (AD-SSP) for 28 days. The β-amyloid (35–25) infused rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (Non-AD-CON).
  2. abcDifferent superscript alphabets on the same row indicate significant differences at P < 0.05.