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Table 2 Glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion during hyperglycemic clamp

From: Red peppers with moderate and severe pungency prevent the memory deficit and hepatic insulin resistance in diabetic rats with Alzheimer’s disease

  AD-CON (n = 20) AD-LSP (n = 20) AD-MSP (n = 20) AD-SSP (n = 20) Non-AD-CON (n = 20)
Serum glucose at basal state (mM) 7.1 ± 0.8 6.9 ± 0.7 7.1 ± 0.7 7.0 ± 1.0 7.0 ± 0.6
Serum insulin (ng/mL) 1.37 ± 0.17a 1.13 ± 0.15b 1.07 ± 0.16b 1.05 ± 0.14b 1.09 ± 0.15b
HOMA-IR 12.6 ± 2.5a 9.4 ± 2.1b 9.1 ± 1.9b 8.8 ± 1.9b 9.2 ± 2.1b
First phase of insulin (0–10 min; ng/mL) 2.25 ± 0.35 2.18 ± 0.32 2.26 ± 0.33 2.44 ± 0.34 2.51 ± 0.37
Second phase of insulin (60–120 min; ng/mL) 2.66 ± 0.38a 2.42 ± 0.40ab 2.34 ± 0.34b 2.36 ± 0.32b 2.32 ± 0.34b
AUC of first phase of insulin (0–10 min; ng/mL*min) 26.3 ± 3.8 25.8 ± 3.5 26.7 ± 3.6 29.1 ± 3.6 30.0 ± 4.2
AUC of second phase of insulin (30–120 min; ng/mL*min) 246 ± 33a 225 ± 31ab 215 ± 29b 217 ± 27b 212 ± 28b
Glucose infusion rate (mg/kg bw/min) 8.6 ± 1.5c 11.6 ± 1.8b 12.8 ± 2.0ab 13.2 ± 2.1a 13.4 ± 1.9a
Insulin sensitivity at hyperglycemic state (μmol glucose · min−1 · 100 g−1 per μmol insulin/L) 3.2 ± 0.6c 4.8 ± 0.7b 5.5 ± 0.8a 5.6 ± 0.8a 5.8 ± 0.8a
  1. Values are Means ± SD. Values are mean ± SD. The β-amyloid (25–35) infused diabetic rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (AD-CON), 1% less pungent red pepper (AD-LSP), moderately pungent red pepper (AD-MSP) or severely pungent red pepper (AD-SSP) for 28 days. The β-amyloid (35–25) infused rats fed high fat diets with 1% dextrin (Non-AD-CON). HOMA-IR, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. First phase of serum insulin was defined as the average of serum insulin levels at 2 and 5 mins, with second phase at 60, 90 and 120 mins. Insulin sensitivity at hyperglycemic state was calculated as the ratio of glucose infusion rate to steady-state plasma insulin levels.
  2. abcDifferent superscript alphabets on the same row indicate significant differences at P < 0.05.