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Table 2 The effects of nitrate and nitrite on glucose and insulin homeostasis

From: Beneficial effects of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in type 2 diabetes and its complications

Author Animal Treatment Outcomes
Carlstrom, 2010 [41] e-NOS deficient mice Addition of NaNO3 drinking water at a concentration of 85 mg/l for 8–10 weeks ↓ Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin
↓ Pro-insulin to insulin ratio
Improved glucose tolerance test
Nystrom, 2012 [42] Male wistar rats Intraperitoneal injection of NaNO2 or NaNO3 ↑ Plasma nitrite concentration
↑ Pancreatic islet blood flow without any effect on total pancreas blood flow
↑ Plasma insulin concentration without any effect on glycemia
↑ Insulin secretion from isolated rat islet in vitro under basal (5 mM glucose) but not under stimulatory (15 mM glucose) conditions
Sodium nitrate had no insulinotropic effects at either glucose concentration
Ohtake, 2015 [43] KKAy diabetic mice Administration of NO2 in drinking water at a dose of 50 and 150 mg/l for 10 weeks ↓ Glucose level and improve glucose tolerance test at dose of 150 mg/l
Improved insulin resistance, measured by HOMA-IR at both doses
↑ GLUT4 translocation in the cell membrane of skeletal muscle
Jiang, 2015 [44] Db/db diabetic mice Administration of 50 mg/l NaNO2 for 4 weeks ↓ Fasting glucose concentration
↓ Insulin concentration, ↑ insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling
↑ GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in vitro at a dose of 10 and 100 μM
Khalifi, 2015 [45] Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Administration of NaNO3 in drinking water at a dose of 100 mg/l for 8 weeks Restored serum nitrate/nitrite to normal values
Improved glucose tolerance
  1. NaNo3, Sodium nitrate; NaNo2, sodium nitrite