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Table 3 Beneficial effects of nitrate/nitrite administration on type 2 diabetes complications

From: Beneficial effects of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in type 2 diabetes and its complications





Ohtake, 2007 [67]

Streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

Administration of nitrite in drinking water for 4 weeks

↓ Serum malondialdehyde concentrations

↑ Nitrite levels in the kidney

Improvement in glomerular injury parameters including urinary protein and albumin excretion, histopathological glomerular hypertrophy, and mesangial matrix accumulation

Carlstrom, 2011 [68]

Sprague–Dawley rats subjected to unilateral nephrectomy and chronic high-salt diet

Administration of nitrate at doses of 0.14 and 1.4 g NaNO3/kg diet for 10 weeks

↓ Proteinuria

Improvement of histological renal injury, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis

Restored tissue levels of bioactive nitrogen oxides

↓ Plasma malondialdehyde concentration

↓Urinary F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine

Attenuates increased plasma and urinary levels of dimethylarginine (an endogenous NOS inhibitor)

↑ Serum L-arginine levels

  1. NaNo3; Sodium nitrate, NOS; Nitric oxide synthase