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Table 3 Beneficial effects of nitrate/nitrite administration on type 2 diabetes complications

From: Beneficial effects of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in type 2 diabetes and its complications

Author Animal Treatment Outcomes
Ohtake, 2007 [67] Streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats Administration of nitrite in drinking water for 4 weeks ↓ Serum malondialdehyde concentrations
↑ Nitrite levels in the kidney
Improvement in glomerular injury parameters including urinary protein and albumin excretion, histopathological glomerular hypertrophy, and mesangial matrix accumulation
Carlstrom, 2011 [68] Sprague–Dawley rats subjected to unilateral nephrectomy and chronic high-salt diet Administration of nitrate at doses of 0.14 and 1.4 g NaNO3/kg diet for 10 weeks ↓ Proteinuria
Improvement of histological renal injury, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis
Restored tissue levels of bioactive nitrogen oxides
↓ Plasma malondialdehyde concentration
↓Urinary F2-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine
Attenuates increased plasma and urinary levels of dimethylarginine (an endogenous NOS inhibitor)
↑ Serum L-arginine levels
  1. NaNo3; Sodium nitrate, NOS; Nitric oxide synthase