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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Adiposity measures and vitamin D concentrations in Northeast Germany and Denmark

Characteristics SHIP-1 (N = 3072) SHIP-Trend (N = 803) Health2006 (N = 3195)
Male, % 48.7 45.2 45.6
Age, years 54.0 (42.0–66.0) 50.0 (40.0–60.0) 50.0 (40.0–60.0)
Smoking, %    
  Non smoker 41.6 42.5 42.5
  Ex smoker 32.3 36.2 32.2
  Occasional smoker 3.5 3.4 3.2
  Regular smoker 22.6 17.9 22.1
Physical activity,    
  Any physical activity 40.1 - -
  At least 60 min per week during summer and winter - 51.4 -
  Regular exercise or heavy gardening at least 3 times a week or athletic training - - 21.4
Risky alcohol consumption, %a 8.7 7.0 22.2
Alcohol, g/day 3.9 (1.0–11.8) 4.2 (1.3–10.5) 10.3 (3.4–22.3)
eGFR, ml/min 97.6 (77.6–121.6) 106.1 (86.7–128.8) 97.7 (81.8–116.6)
25OHD, ng/ml 17.5 (12.5–24.5) 24.9 (17.7–32.7) 16.7 (11.8–22.3)
  25OHD <20 ng/ml, % 59.8 33.0 66.0
PTH, pg/ml 34.1 (25.7–44.4) 31.2 (23.8–39.4) 39.0 (30.5–36.1)
VAT (MRI), l - 3.1 (1.6–5.1) -
VAT (ultrasound), cm - - 5.9 (4.6–7.8)
SAT (MRI), l - 6.9 (5.2–9.4) -
SAT (ultrasound), cm - - 2.8 (2.1–3.7)
Bodyfat, % - 28.0 (22.8–33.9) 29.1 (22.9–36.1)
BMI, kg/m2 27.4 (24.4–30.8) 26.6 (23.8–29.5) 25.2 (22.2–28.1)
  BMI <25 kg/m2 29.3 35.1 48.2
  BMI 25–29 kg/m2 40.8 43.0 36.7
  BMI 30–39 kg/m2 28.1 21.4 14.1
  BMI ≥40 kg/m2 1.9 0.5 1.0
Waist circumference, cm 92.2 (82.5–102.0) 86.5 (77.6–96.0) 88.0 (78.0–97.0)
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.86 (0.81–0.93) 0.86 (0.80–0.93) 0.87 (0.80–0.94)
Waist-to-height ratio 0.55 (0.49–0.60) 0.51 (0.46–0.56) 0.51 (0.46–0.56)
Body surface area, m2 1.89 (1.74–2.04) 1.89 (1.74–2.03) 1.89 (1.73–2.04)
  1. Data are median (1st – 3rd quartile) or proportions
  2. BMI body mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Cockcroft-Gault formula, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, PTH parathyroid hormone, SAT abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, VAT visceral adipose tissue, 25OHD 25-hydroxy vitamin D
  3. adefined as ≥30 g/day in men and ≥20 g/day in women