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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of children and adolescents according to quartiles of sugar sweetened beverage consumption: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

From: Consumption of sugar sweetened beverage is associated with incidence of metabolic syndrome in Tehranian children and adolescents

  Quartiles P for trend1
  Q1 (n = 106) Q2 (n = 106) Q3 (n = 106) Q4 (n = 106)
Median intake (ml/d) 9.3 32.0 58.6 142.2  
Age (years) 13.8 ± 3.7 12.9 ± 3.7 13.8 ± 3.7 13.7 ± 3.6 0.737
Girls (%) 72 43 62 50 0.092
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 96.8 ± 12.2 97.7 ± 10.7 97.1 ± 11.7 100.2 ± 12.0 0.021
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 64.3 ± 9.4 63.9 ± 6.9 65.7 ± 9.1 64.7 ± 10.2 0.520
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 83.0 (62.7–103.2) 77.0 (63.0–94.0) 84.0 (64.0–105.2) 81.5 (63.0–112.5) 0.216
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 83.9 ± 5.9 84.4 ± 5.9 85.5 ± 5.8 86.0 ± 6.5 0.037
High density lipoprotein (mg/dl) 45.8 ± 11.9 46.3 ± 11.11 47.3 ± 9.6 43.8 ± 9.4.2 0.269
Waist circumstance (cm) 69.7 ± 11.1 69.7 ± 10.4 67.8 ± 10.6 68.1 ± 9.5 0.231
Body mass index (kg/m2) 18.7 ± 4.3 19.2 ± 3.8 19.7 ± 3.6 20.1 ± 3.8 <0.001
Daily dietary intakes      
 Total energy (kcal) 2116 ± 962 2364 ± 1017 2440 ± 1020 3317 ± 1670 <0.001
 Dietary fiber/1000 kcal (g) 14.5 ± 6.4 14.4 ± 6.6 14.6 ± 5.5 14.2 ± 4.6 0.866
 Total fat (% energy) 32.4 ± 8.5 31.9 ± 6.3 32.3 ± 7.2 31.6 ± 5.5 0.785
 Trans-fatty acids (g) 4.17 ± 3.88 4.23 ± 2.83 5.26 ± 5.77 6.6 ± 4.6 <0.001
 Saturated fatty acids (g) 25.1 ± 12.7 28.1 ± 13.2 27.6 ± 16.4 41.9 ± 23.2 <0.001
 Protein (% energy) 13.0 ± 2.4 13.8 ± 3.4 12.8 ± 1.9 12.9 ± 1.9 0.230
 Carbohydrate (% energy) 56.2 ± 8.7 56.8 ± 7.4 57.1 ± 7.1 57.5 ± 5.9 0.098
 Glucose (g) 11.7 ± 7.8 14.7 ± 7.5 15.2 ± 7.2 25.2 ± 15.2 <0.001
 Fructose (g) 13.2 ± 8.8 16.5 ± 8.2 18.2 ± 8.7 23.9 ± 7.9 <0.001
 Sucrose (g) 26.8 ± 21.2 30.6 ± 20.3 36.5 ± 60.4 41.1 ± 28.4 <0.001
 Total simple sugar (g) 111.4 ± 81.8 118.7 ± 56.0 124.3 ± 81.9 142.9 ± 98.0 <0.001
 Total simple sugar (% energy) 20.8 ± 7.7 20.3 ± 5.2 20.2 ± 5.76 21.6 ± 5.7 0.422
 Glycemic index 61.1 ± 35.8 78.4 ± 38.2 81.5 ± 45.11 102.1 ± 74.5 <0.001
 Fruit (g/1000 kcal) 183.4 ± 118 173.5 ± 113.6 160.5 ± 94.4 130.4 ± 100.1 <0.001
 Vegetable (g/1000 kcal) 105.7 ± 66.2 94.8 ± 55.8 97.4 ± 53.5 94.5 ± 46.2 0.200
 Low fat dairy (g/1000 kcal) 117.9 ± 90.3 113.9 ± 89.7 109.1 ± 75.3 121.5 ± 91.9 0.875
 Meat and processed meat (g/1000 kcal) 11.4 ± 11.9 12.9 ± 9.4 12.5 ± 10.1 14.9 ± 11.2 0.076
 Legumes (g/1000 kcal) 7.0 ± 8.9 6.9 ± 7.6 7.3 ± 9.1 5.9 ± 7.1 0.362
 Whole grains (g/1000 kcal) 38.7 ± 40.9 30.9 ± 31.6 27.0 ± 25.0 26.5 ± 26.6 0.003
  1. Data represented as mean ± SD or median (IQ 25–75) for continuous variables and percentage for categorically distributed variables
  2. 1Based on linear regression models for continuous variables and chi-square for categorical variables