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Table 3 Multivariable-adjusted ORs (95 % CIs) of incident MetS and its components by quartiles of sugar sweetened carbonated soft drink and fruit juice drink intakes after 3.6 years of follow up among children and adolescents

From: Consumption of sugar sweetened beverage is associated with incidence of metabolic syndrome in Tehranian children and adolescents

  Quartiles P for trend1
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Sugar sweetened carbonated soft drink (ml/d) 1.12 9.33 33.06 100.00  
MetS      
 Model 1 1.00 1.06 (0.31–3.57) 2.29 (0.76–6.97) 3.33 (1.04–10.73) 0.014
 Model 2 1.00 1.02 (0.30–3.47) 2.39 (0.78–7.31) 3.45 (1.06–11.18) 0.012
 Model 3 1.00 1.11 (0.32–3.82) 2.44 (0.79–7.49) 3.58 (1.09–11.78) 0.013
Low HDL-C      
 Model 1 1.00 0.38 (0.12–1.30) 0.77 (0.31–1.93) 1.00 (0.33–2.98) 0.982
 Model 2 1.00 0.37 (0.11–1.27) 0.71 (0.28–1.84) 1.15 (0.35–3.79) 0.950
 Model 3 1.00 0.37 (0.11–1.28) 0.69 (0.26–1.80) 1.15 (0.35–3.81) 0.989
Abdominal obesity      
 Model 1 1.00 1.73 (0.72–4.16) 1.99 (0.83–4.77) 2.76 (0.92–8.28) 0.064
 Model 2 1.00 1.85 (0.76–4.49) 2.23 (0.91–5.43) 3.39 (1.08–10.70) 0.034
 Model 3 1.00 1.57 (0.60–4.06) 2.03 (0.78–5.28) 3.78 (1.08–13.27) 0.043
Hypertension      
 Model 1 1.00 0.77 (0.25–2.36) 1.29 (0.46–3.57) 2.64 (1.03–6.80) 0.022
 Model 2 1.00 0.80 (0.26–2.44) 1.36 (0.48–3.84) 2.84 (1.04–7.19) 0.021
 Model 3 1.00 0.79 (0.26–2.44) 1.37 (0.49–3.84) 2.74 (1.05–7.19) 0.018
High FPG      
 Model 1 1.00 0.58 (0.21–1.60) 1.97 (0.86–4.53) 1.12 (0.41–3.10) 0.243
 Model 2 1.00 0.56 (0.20–1.56) 1.95 (0.84–4.54) 1.11 (0.40–3.11) 0.255
 Model 3 1.00 0.55 (0.20–1.54) 1.93 (0.83–4.50) 1.12 (0.40–3.12) 0.251
High TGs      
 Model 1 1.00 1.04 (0.35–3.11) 2.01 (0.71–5.68) 1.89 (0.65–5.60) 0.137
 Model 2 1.00 1.03 (0.34–3.12) 2.04 (0.71–5.89) 1.97 (0.46–6.02) 0.124
 Model 3 1.00 0.83 (0.27–2.58) 1.91 (0.66–5.50) 1.75 (0.57–5.37) 0.148
Fruit juice drink (ml/d) 1.31 8.29 20.40 67.14  
MetS      
 Model 1 1.00 1.17 (0.46–2.96) 0.62 (0.22–1.79) 1.18 (0.46–3.06) 0.993
 Model 2 1.00 1.10 (0.42–2.82) 0.60 (0.20–1.78) 1.17 (0.42–3.16) 0.984
 Model 3 1.00 1.13 (0.43–2.91) 0.64 (0.21–1.92) 1.19 (0.44–3.21) 0.947
Low HDL-C      
 Model 1 1.00 0.76 (0.27–2.14) 0.76 (0.29–2.01) 0.49 (0.16–1.49) 0.235
 Model 2 1.00 0.68 (0.23–1.99) 0.70 (0.26–1.86) 0.43 (0.14–1.36) 0.171
 Model 3 1.00 0.69 (0.23–2.02) 0.72 (0.27–1.92) 0.44 (0.14–1.39) 0.181
Abdominal obesity      
 Model 1 1.00 1.54 (0.71–3.35) 0.75 (0.31–1.80) 1.32 (0.59–2.95) 0.899
 Model 2 1.00 1.53 (0.69–3.78) 0.72 (0.29–1.77) 1.15 (0.48–2.77) 0.854
 Model 3 1.00 2.31 (0.95–5.61) 0.88 (0.33–2.35) 1.26 (0.48–3.34) 0.865
Hypertension      
 Model 1 1.00 1.72 (0.63–4.72) 1.48 (0.53–4.14) 1.10 (0.38–3.21) 0.990
 Model 2 1.00 1.86 (0.67–5.19) 1.65 (0.57–4.77) 1.18 (0.39–3.58) 0.878
 Model 3 1.00 2.00 (0.71–5.66) 1.91 (0.65–5.60) 1.28 (0.42–3.94) 0.748
High FPG      
 Model 1 1.00 1.17 (0.46–2.97) 0.62 (0.22–1.79) 1.18 (0.46–3.06) 0.993
 Model 2 1.00 1.10 (0.43–2.82) 0.60 (0.20–1.78) 1.17 (0.44–3.16) 0.984
 Model 3 1.00 1.13 (0.44–2.91) 0.64 (0.21–1.92) 1.19 (0.44–3.21) 0.947
High TGs      
 Model 1 1.00 0.62 (0.23–1.63) 0.49 (0.18–1.31) 0.79 (0.30–2.07) 0.464
 Model 2 1.00 0.60 (0.22–1.60) 0.43 (0.15–1.20) 0.77 (0.28–2.11) 0.419
 Model 3 1.00 0.64 (0.24–1.73) 0.47 (0.16–1.34) 0.84 (0.30–2.33) 0.544
  1. MetS metabolic syndrome, HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, FPG fasting plasma glucose, TGs triglycerides
  2. Model1: Adjusted for baseline age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, and family history of diabetes
  3. Model 2: Additionally adjusted for dietary fiber, tea and coffee, red and processed meat, fruit, and vegetable
  4. Model 3: Additionally adjusted for body mass index
  5. 1Based on logistic regression model using median intake of sugar sweetened beverages in each quartile as a continuous variable